Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: peli-s-, pel-s-   'fell, rock'

Semantic Field(s): Hill, Mountain, Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ail n rock, stone RPN
Middle English: fell n fell OED
English: fell n hill, mountain, rocky/stony place OED
fjeld n barren upland plateau AHD/W7
hornfels n fine-grained metamorphic rock AHD
troll-fells n rocky area of trolls in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: fel(i)s n rock, stone RPN
Old High German: felis(a) n rock, stone RPN
German: Fels n.masc rock LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fjall n.neut fell LRC
fjalltindr n.masc hilltop, mountain top LRC
Old Icelandic: fell n.neut fell RPN
Danish: fjeld n fjeld, fell OED/W7
Swedish: fiäll n fell OED
Greek: πέλλα n rock, stone RPN
Pushto: parṣ̌a n rock, stone RPN
Sanskrit: pāṣāṇá-ḥ n rock, stone RPN
pāṣyā̀ n rock, stone RPN
Pali: pāsāṇa- n rock, stone RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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