Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pen-, pen-ko-   'mud, fen, swamp, water; wet'

Semantic Field(s): Mud, Mire, Water, Wet, Damp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fen(n), fæn(n) n.masc/neut fen, marsh; mud, dirt ASD
Middle English: fen n fen W7
English: fen n lowland covered wholly/partly by water AHD/W7
Fenmarch prop.n east Rohan border in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: fen n fen ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fen(n)e n fen ASD
Frisian: finne n fen ASD
Dutch: veen n.neut fen ASD
Low German: fenne n fen ASD
Old High German: fenna, fenne n.str.neut fen, marsh W7
German: Fenn n.neut fen ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fen n.neut fen, bog, quagmire LRC
Icelandic: fen n.neut fen, quagmire ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fani n.neut fen, mud, dirt ASD
Sanskrit: paṅka n mud W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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