Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pent-   'to go, walk, pad, tread; way, path'

Semantic Field(s): to Go, to Walk, Path


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: findan, fond, fundon, funden vb.str.III to find LRC
onfindan, onfond, onfundon, onfunden vb.str.III to find out, realize LRC
pæþ, paþ n.masc path, track ASD
punt n punt W7
Middle English: finden vb to find W7
path n path W7
punt n punt W7
English: find, found vb.str to discover, encounter, come upon AHD/W7
footpad n one who robs pedestrians AHD/W7
Fundin prop.n Balin's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pad n highwayman W7
pad vb to traverse on foot AHD/W7
path n trodden way AHD/W7
peripatetic adj Aristotelian AHD/W7
pons n tissue connecting body organ parts AHD
pontifex n member of Roman Catholic priest council W7
pontiff n pontifex AHD/W7
pontine adj re: pons/bridges AHD
pontoon n flat-bottomed boat AHD/W7
punt n pontoon with square ends AHD/W7
sputnik n satellite AHD/W7
transpontine adj situated on other side of bridge AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: finna vb to find ASD
path, paed n path ASD
Frisian: fynnen vb to find ASD
Middle Dutch: pad n path W7
paden vb to pad, follow a path W7
Dutch: pad n path TLL
vinden vb to find ASD
Old Saxon: findan vb to find ASD
Low German: finnen vb to find ASD
Old High German: findan vb to find ASD
pfad n path W7
Middle High German: vinden vb to find ASD
German: finden vb to find ASD
Pfad n.masc path LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: finna vb to find, meet; invent; notice, perceive ICE
Fundinn prop.n Voluspa dwarf TPE
fundinn vb.past.ptc found ICE
Icelandic: finna vb to find ASD
Danish: finde vb to find ASD
Swedish: finna vb to find ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: finþan vb to find ASD
Latin: peripateticus adj of the peripatetic school W7
pons, pontis n.masc bridge LRC
pōntifex, pōntificis n.masc pontiff, high priest W7
pontō, pontōnis n.masc pontoon W7
Middle French: peripatétique adj of the peripatetic school W7
French: pontife n.masc pontiff W7
Old Church Slavonic: pǫtь n.masc road, way, journey LRC
Homeric Greek: πόντος n.masc deep sea LRC
Greek: patein vb to tread W7
peripatein vb to discourse while pacing (like Aristotle) W7
peripatētikos adj of the peripatetic school W7
Πόντος prop.n.masc Pontos LRC
Sanskrit: patha n path, way W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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