Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2a. per-   'to pass over/beyond'

Semantic Field(s): to Move, to Overtake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: be-fōran, bi-fōran prep/adv before W7/ASD
feor prep far from LRC
feor(r), fior adv far W7/ASD
firn, fyrn adj/adv old, ancient; formerly IEW/ASD
for- pfx for- W7/ASD
for(an) adv/prep forth, before, in front of RPN
fore- pfx fore- W7/ASD
fore prep/adv for, before, formerly LRC
forma adj first, earliest LRC
formest adj.sup foremost W7
forþ adj/adv forth, thence LRC
forðian vb.wk to carry out W7/ASD
fram adj bold, stout, valiant, competent IEW
fram prep/adv from, away RPN
framian vb to benefit, make progress W7
frēa, frēo n.masc lord, master ASD
from prep from W7
frum adj first, original, primitive RPN
frum-gār n.masc leader, chieftain, patriarch, lit. first-spear ASD
furðor, furður adv.comp further W7/ASD
fyr(me)st, formest adj.sup first RPN/ASD
geforðian vb to carry out W7
prēost n.masc priest W7/ASD
prīm n prime, first hour W7/ASD
prūd, prūt adj proud, arrogant W7/ASD
prȳde, prȳte n.fem pride W7/ASD
Middle English: aforthen vb to afford W7
ap(p)rochen vb to approach W7/CDC
appropriaten vb to appropriate W7
approven, aproeven, ap(p)reven vb to approve W7/CDC
approximate adj approximate AHD
barde n bard AHD
before adv/prep before W7
depriven vb to deprive W7
first adj first W7
for- pfx for- W7
for adv wherefore W7
for(e)- pfx fore- W7
fore prep before W7
forme adj.sup first W7
former(e) adj.comp former, ancestor W7
formest adj.sup first, foremost W7
forth adv/prep along, henceforth W7
fra(e) adv/prep frae W7
framen vb to construct, benefit W7
fro adv/prep from W7
from prep from W7
froward adj froward W7
furnisshen vb to furnish W7
further adv further W7
inprimis adv imprimis W7
para- pfx para- W7
pre- pfx pre- W7
pre(i)st n priest W7
pr(e)ove n proof W7
primat(e) n first place W7
primier adj premier W7
primitif adj primitive W7
principal n principal W7
principle n principle W7
prio(u)r(e) n prior, administrator W7
prive, pryve adj private W7
privite, pryvete n privity, secret counsel W7
pro- pfx pro- W7
pro n pro W7
probable adj probable W7
prone adj prone W7
propinquite n propinquity W7
propre adj proper, distinct W7
proprete n property W7
prouesse n prowess W7
prove n proof W7
proven vb to prove W7
prow n profit, advantage W7
pryde n pride W7
pryme n prime W7
pryns, prynce n prince W7
purchacen vb to purchase W7
reproche n reproach W7
reproven vb to reprove W7
English: afford vb.trans to manage to bear (cost of) without major loss/detriment AHD/W7
approach vb to near, draw closer to AHD/W7
appropriate vb.trans to annex, take exclusive possession of AHD/W7
approve vb to attest, prove AHD/W7
approximate adj nearly exact/correct AHD/W7
arpent n French land area unit AHD/W7
bard n horse armor/ornament AHD/W7
before adv ahead, in advance AHD/W7
deprive vb.trans to remove AHD/W7
expropriate vb.trans to deprive of possession/proprietary rights AHD/W7
far adv at/to considerable spatial distance AHD/W7
farther adj/adv.comp further, at greater distance AHD/W7
first adj/adv foremost, preceded by none AHD/W7
Firstborn prop.n the Elves in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
for- pfx re: neglect, failure, refusal, omission, exclusion, prohibition AHD/W7
for prep re: goal, purpose, destination AHD/W7
fore- pfx (occurring) earlier, beforehand AHD/W7
fore prep/adv before; formerly AHD/W7
forefather n ancestor AHD/W7
forego vb to precede, go before AHD/W7
forehead n facial part above eyes AHD/W7
Forelithe prop.n Shire calendar's June in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
foremast n mast nearest ship's bow W7
foremost adj first in series/progression AHD/W7
Foreyule prop.n Shire calendar's December in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
former adj being/coming before (in time) AHD/W7
Forn prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
forth adv forward, onward in time/place/order AHD/W7
frae prep from AHD/W7
Fram prop.n horse-folk lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
frame vb to go, proceed AHD/W7
Frau tit Mrs. LRC
Fraulein tit Miss AHD
Fréa prop.n 4th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Fréaláf prop.n 10th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Fréawine prop.n 5th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Frey prop.n god of crops/fertility/peace/prosperity (Norse mythology) W7
Frey(j)a prop.n goddess of love/beauty (Norse mythology) W2I
fro prep from AHD/W7
from prep re: source, starting point, separation AHD/W7
froward adj habitually disposed to opposition/disobedience AHD/W7
frump n dowdy unattractive female AHD/W7
frumple vb to wrinkle OED
furnish vb.trans to provide with necessities AHD/W7
furniture n useful/necessary/desirable equipment AHD/W7
further adj/adv.comp farther, at greater distance AHD/W7
galore adj abundant, plentiful AHD
imprimis adv in first place AHD/W7
improbity n dishonesty, lack of probity/integrity AHD/W7
improve vb to make greater in degree/amount AHD/W7
naprapathy n treatment of disease by joint/muscle/ligament manipulation AHD
palanquin n covered litter borne on poles AHD/W7
para- pfx beyond, beside, alongside, aside from AHD/W7
paramount adj of chief concern/importance AHD
per- pfx throughout, thoroughly AHD/W7
per prep through, by means/agency of AHD/W7
percurrent adj running through entire length AHD/CDC
perestroika n mid-1980's restructuring of Soviet economy/bureaucracy AHD
peri- pfx about, all around AHD/W7
perigee n orbital point nearest earth's center AHD
perihelion n orbital point nearest sun's center AHD
perinephrium n fatty connective tissue surrounding kidney AHD
periostracum n hard protective covering of mollusk shell AHD
periproct n area around invertebrat anus AHD
peripteral adj surrounded by single row of columns AHD
perissodactyl adj having toes in odd numbers/uneven disposition AHD/W7
perplexed adj puzzled, filled with confusion/bewilderment AHD
praedial adj landed, re: land AHD
pr(a)eter- pfx beyond TLL
pram n small lightweight (almost) flat-bottomed boat AHD/W7
pre- pfx before, prior to, earlier than AHD/W7
premier adj principal, first in rank/position/importance AHD/W7
premier n prime minister AHD/W7
presbyopia n inability of old eyes to focus sharply AHD
presbyter n elder, member of governing body in early Christian church AHD/W7
prescience n foresight, knowledge of events/actions before occurrence AHD
prescient adj foreknowing, re: prescience AHD
pride n being proud AHD/W7
priest n one authorized to perform sacred religious rites AHD/W7
primal adj primary, original, being first AHD
primary adj primitive, first in time/development AHD/W7
primate n bishop having precedence in province/nation AHD/W7
primavera n white mahogany: tall tree with light-colored wood AHD
prime adj original, first in time AHD/W7
prime n second of canonical hours AHD/W7
primeval adj primal, ancient, re: first/earliest age(s) AHD
primipara n female bearing first offspring AHD/W7
primitive adj primary, original, not derived AHD/W7
primo adv first, in first place AHD/W7
primo n first/leading part (in ensemble) AHD/W7
primus n first among bishops in Scottish Episcopal Church AHD/W7
prince n king(-to-be), monarch AHD/W7
principal adj chief, most important/influential/consequential AHD/W7
principle n fundamental/comprehensive law/doctrine/assumption AHD/W7
prior n superior ranking next to abbot (in monastery) AHD/W7
pristine adj primitive, belonging to earliest state/period AHD/W7
private adj intended for/affecting particular class/group/person AHD/W7
privity n joint/private knowledge of private matter AHD/W7
privy adj belonging/relating to person in individual rather than official capacity AHD/W7
pro- pfx taking place of, substituting for AHD/W7
pro- pfx before, prior to, earlier than AHD/W7
pro n (one holding) affirmative side AHD/W7
probable adj supported by evidence establishing presumption (not proof) AHD/W7
probe n slender instrument for examining cavity AHD/W7
probity n uprightness, adherence to highest ideals/principles AHD/W7
proctor n procurator AHD/OED
procurator n agent, manager of another's affairs AHD/CDC
procure vb to obtain, acquire, get by special effort AHD
prodigal adj rashly/wastefully extravagant AHD
prodigality n quality of being prodigal AHD/CDC
proglottid n bisexual segment of tapeworm AHD
prone adj disposed, having tendency/inclination AHD/W7
proof n cogency of evidence compelling acceptance of truth/fact AHD/W7
proper adj fit, marked by rightness/suitability/appropriateness AHD/W7
property n trait/quality peculiar/belonging to thing/individual AHD/W7
propinquity n kinship, nearness of blood AHD/W7
proprioception n unconscious perception of bodily movement/orientation via internal stimuli AHD
proprioceptor n sensory receptor responding to internal stimuli AHD
proprium n common predicable property of all AHD
pros- pfx near, toward AHD/W7
prosciutto n aged dry-cured spiced ham AHD
prosopography n statistical study describing people/characters in context AHD
prostyle adj having row of columns across front only AHD
protein n complex amino acid combination AHD/W7
Proterozoic adj re: geologic eon ca. 2,500-570 million years ago LRC
prothallus n fern gametophyte AHD
protist n unicellular/acellular organism: alga, fungus, bacterium, protozoan, or virus AHD/W7
proto- pfx first TLL
protoctist n unicellular eukaryotic organism AHD
proton n atomic particle with positive charge AHD/W7
protuberance n knob, bulge, swelling AHD
protuberate vb to swell, bulge, be prominent AHD
prove vb to experience AHD/W7
provenance n source, origin AHD/W7
provenience n source, origin AHD
prow adj gallant, valiant AHD/W7
prow n stem, bow of ship AHD/W7
prowess n distinguished bravery AHD/W7
proximate adj close, very near AHD/W7
Purana prop.n ancient genre of post-Vedic Hindu/Jain texts LRC
purchase vb.trans to gain, acquire AHD/W7
rapprochement n establishment/state of cordial relations AHD/W7
reciprocal adj opposite, inversely related AHD/W7
reproach n cause/occasion of blame/disgrace/discredit AHD/W7
reprove vb.trans to (administer) rebuke AHD/W7
veer vb.trans to let/pay out (e.g. anchor rope/chain) AHD/W7
veneer n thin sheet of material AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fir, fer adv far ASD
forma adj.sup first ASD
forth, ford adv forth ASD
furthor, furdur adv.comp further ASD
prēstere n priest ASD
Frisian: fier adv far ASD
fort, ford adv forth ASD
Old Low Franconian: fruo adv early, in the morning KLW
Middle Dutch: verrompelen vb to frumple AHD
vieren vb to veer, slacken W7
Dutch: praam n pram W7
ver(re) adv far ASD
voor prep for, before, on behalf of TLL
voort adv forth ASD
vorst n.masc prince ASD
vrouw n wife, woman TLL
Old Saxon: fer adv far ASD
fern adj old, ancient ASD
formo adj first ASD
forþ adv forth ASD
frāho, frōho, frō(io) n.masc lord, master ASD
fram, vram prep from ASD
furðor adv.comp further ASD
furist adj.sup first RPN
furisto n prince RPN
Old Low German: prēstar n priest ASD
Middle Low German: prām n pram W7
vīren vb to veer W7
vrō adv early, in the morning SAO
Low German: fe(e)re adv afar ASD
foorste n prince ASD
Old High German: fer(ro) adv far W7/ASD
firni adj old, ancient ASD
fram adv/prep forth, away; from W7/ASD
Frīa n Freya W7
frō n.masc lord, master ASD
frouwa n lady, mistress W7
fruma n advantage W7
frummen vb to further W7
fruo adv early, in the morning KDW
fur- pfx for- W7
furdir adv.comp further ASD
furist adj.sup first W7
furthar adj.comp further W7
priestar, prēstar n priest ASD
Middle High German: vërre adv far ASD
virne adj old, ancient ASD
vort adv forth ASD
vürder adv.comp further ASD
German: fern adv far ASD
firn(e) adj old, ancient ASD
fort adv forth ASD
Frau tit/n.fem Mrs.; elder/married woman W7
Fräulein tit/n.neut Fraulein; young woman TLL
früh adv early, in the morning LRC
Frühstück n breakfast TLL
für prep for LRC
fürder adv moreover ASD
Furnier n.neut veneer W7
furnieren vb to (apply) veneer W7
Fürst n.masc prince ASD
Prinz n prince TLL
vor prep before, in front of TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: forða, forðað vb to save LRC
forn adj old, ancient LRC
fram adv forward, on; away; out LRC
framan adv forward, from the front side LRC
framr adj foremost; excellent, outstanding LRC
frá prep from, concerning LRC
frest n.neut respite LRC
Freyja prop.n Freya, a.k.a. Frigg W2I
Freyr prop.n Frey W7
fyrir prep before, in front of; against; for, because of LRC
fyrr adv before; first; until LRC
fyrstr adj.sup first LRC
hús-frú n wife KNW
Icelandic: fjarri adv far off ASD
forn adj old, ancient ASD
fram adv forward ASD
frā prep from ASD
Freyr prop.n.masc Frey ASD
frum- adj first ASD
fyrstr adj first ASD
prestr n priest ASD
prīm(i), prima n prime, first hour ASD
prýði n.fem pride; ornament ASD
Danish: fiern adv far ASD
foran prep in front of TLL
fordi conj because TLL
fra prep from ASD
frokost n brunch LRC
först(e) adj first ASD
før prep before TLL
hustru n wife TLL
Swedish: därför conj because TLL
fjerran adv far ASD
for prep for, on behalf of TLL
forn adj old, ancient ASD
fram adv forth, forward ASD
framför prep in front of TLL
fro adv.obs early, in the morning SAO
frukost n breakfast TLL
från prep from ASD
för prep for, on behalf of TLL
före prep before TLL
först(e) adj first ASD
hustru n wife TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: fairneis adj old, ancient ASD
faírra adj/prep far, distant; far from LRC
faúr(a) prep for, before, by LRC
fram prep/adv from, by, on account of RPN
framis adv further, onward RPN
fráuja n.wk.masc lord, master LRC
frisahts n.str.fem image LRC
fruma adj first, prior, former RPN
frumabaúr adj first-born LRC
frumists adj/n first, foremost; chief RPN
frums n beginning RPN
Umbrian: pernaiaf adv from in front RPN
perne adv/prep before RPN
Old Latin: pri prep before W7
Latin: adprobare vb to approve, confirm, be good CDC
approbo, approbare vb to approve W7
arpennis n half acre AHD
improbitās, improbitātis n.fem depravity, wickedness, dishonesty W7
improbus adj wicked, dishonest W7
para- pfx beside W7
per adv/prep by, through, along, over RPN
peri- pfx around W7
porro adv far, forward ASD
prae adv/prep before, in front of RPN
praeter adv/prep past, before, beyond TLL
primarius adj principal, of first rank W7
primas n.fem leader W7
primipara n.fem primipara W7
primitivus adj original, primitive W7
primitus adv originally W7
primo adj.abl at first W7
primoris, primoris, primore adj chieftain, leader LRC
prīmus, prīma, prīmum adj.sup first, foremost LRC
princeps, principis n.masc prince, chief, first in rank LRC
principalis adj of the prince W7
principium n.neut beginning W7
prior adj.comp former, superior W7
priscus adj ancient W7
pristinus adj former, primitive, precedent W7
priusquam adv before LRC
privatus, privata, privatum adj/vb.ptc private, individual LRC
privo, privāre vb to deprive, release W7
privus adj/vb.ptc private W7
prō adv/prep for, ahead, before, in front of RPN
probabilis adj probable W7
probitās, probitātis n.fem probity W7
probo, probāre vb to prove, examine W7
probus adj/vb.ptc good, honest, proven W7
procer, proceris n.masc nobleman LRC
pronus adj bent forward, tending W7
prope adj/adv/prep near LRC
propīnquitās, propīnquitātis n.fem kinship, proximity W7
propinquus adj near, akin W7
proprietās, proprietātis n.fem property W7
proprius adj own W7
prora n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
pros- pfx near, towards, (face to face) with W7
proximatus vb.ptc approached, came near W7
proximo, proximare vb to approach, come near W7
proximus, proxima, proximum adj near, next to LRC
reciprocus adj alternating, returning the same way W7
Vulgar Latin: repropio, repropiāre vb to reproach W7
Late Latin: appropriatus vb.ptc appropriated, made one's own W7
approprio, appropiāre vb.trans to appropriate W7/CDC
approximatus vb.ptc approximated, came closer W7
approximo, approximāre vb to approximate, come near W7
presbyter n.masc presbyter, priest W7
primarius adj basic, primary W7
prior n.masc administrator W7
proba n.fem proof W7
prode n.neut advantage W7
prot- pfx before W7
reprobo, reprobāre vb to disapprove, condemn W7
Middle Latin: appropiare vb to approach, come near CDC
Medieval Latin: deprivō, deprivāre vb to deprive W7
expropriatus vb.ptc expropriated W7
exproprio, expropriare vb to expropriate W7
primas, primatis n.fem archbishop W7
privitas, privitatis n.fem privity W7
proba n.fem examination W7
New Latin: prot- pfx primitive W7
Portuguese: approvar vb to approve CDC
por prep through, by, for TLL
porêm conj but TLL
porque conj because TLL
prova n proof TLL
provar vb to prove TLL
Spanish: aprobar vb to approve CDC
para prep for, as means of TLL
pero conj but TLL
por prep through, by, for TLL
porque conj because TLL
primavera n spring, springtime; primavera OED
probar vb to prove TLL
prueba n proof TLL
Old French: ap(p)rover, approuvir vb to approve W7/CDC
aprochier vb to approach W7
arpent n arpent AHD
chacier vb to chase, pursue W7
por- pfx for, forth W7
pre- pfx before W7
preuve n.fem proof W7
primat n.masc archbishop, leader W7
prince n.masc prince W7
principal adj of the prince, primordial W7
privé adj private W7
privite n.fem privacy, familiarity W7
pro- pfx for, before W7
proesse n.fem prowess W7
propre adj own W7
prou adj/n.masc good, capable, valiant; advantage W7
prover vb to prove W7
pur- pfx for, forward W7
purchacier vb to seek to obtain W7
reproche n.masc blame W7
reprochier vb to reproach W7
Anglo-French: emprouer vb to invest profitably W7
Middle French: approcher vb to approach W7
fournir vb to complete, equip W7
fourniss- stem to complete, equip W7
fourniture n.fem furniture, equipment W7
improbité n.fem dishonesty W7
para- pfx beside W7
pre- pfx before W7
premier adj first, chief W7
prime n.fem money given as a bonus W7
prin prep first W7
principe n.masc principle W7
probable adj probable W7
probité n.fem probity, honesty W7
propreté n.fem property W7
prou adv a lot W7
proue n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
rapprocher vb to set closer W7
reproche n.masc blame W7
reprover vb to reprove W7
French: approcher vb to approach CDC
approuver vb to approve CDC
arpent n arpent AHD
fournir vb to supply W7
par prep through, by means of TLL
parmi prep among TLL
pour prep for, as means of TLL
premier adj first W7
preuve n proof TLL
protéine n.fem protein W7
prouver vb to prove TLL
rapprochement n.masc state/action of being/getting closer W7
rapprocher vb to bring closer W7
Old Occitan: aprobar vb to approve CDC
apropchar vb to approach CDC
Old Italian: barda n bard AHD
prua n.fem prow, bow of ship W7
Italian: approcciare vb to approach CDC
approvare vb to approve CDC
per prep through, as means of TLL
perchè conj because TLL
prima adv before TLL
primo adj first W7
prosciutto n prosciutto AHD
provare vb to prove TLL
pruova n proof TLL
Lithuanian: per̃ prep through LRC
pìrmas, pirmà nbr.ord first LRC
priẽ prep at, near, by RPN
priẽš adv/prep against RPN
prõ adv/prep through, past, by RPN
Old Church Slavonic: pri prep near; at the time of LRC
prьvъ adj first, primary LRC
prьvěnьcь adj first-born LRC
prьvěnьcь n.masc firstborn child LRC
prědъ prep before, in front of LRC
Albanian: para adv before LRC
parë adj first LRC
për prep for, about LRC
Homeric Greek: πρέσβα n.fem age LRC
πρέσβυς adj aged, honored, venerable LRC
πρεσβύτερος adj.comp/n older, elder; priest LRC
Greek: ἔμπροσθεν prep before, in front of LRC
ὅσπερ pron.rel it LRC
παρά adv/prep beside; from, of LRC
παραί adv/prep beside RPN
πάρος adv/conj/prep before, until RPN
πέρ adv although LRC
περ pcl indeed LRC
πέρᾱν, πέρην adv/prep beyond, on the other side RPN
περάω vb to pass across/through LRC
περί prep around, about LRC
perissos adj more than normal W7
περπερεύομαι vb to boast LRC
πράξις n.fem action in real life LRC
πράσσω, πράττω vb to achieve, manage LRC
πρέσβυς n.masc old man LRC
πρό adv/prep for, ahead, before LRC
πρόκα adv forthwith RPN
πρόμος adj chief, first, foremost RPN
πρός adv/prep near, towards, (face to face) with LRC
πρότερον adv earlier, before LRC
πρότερος adj first, before, forward LRC
προτί adv/prep near, towards, (face to face) with RPN
πρωί adv early LRC
prōira n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
πρώτιστα adv first of all LRC
prōtistos adj.sup first, primal W7
πρῶτον adv first LRC
prōton n.neut proton W7
πρῶτος adj first, foremost LRC
prōtos adj first W7
ὥσπερ adv/conj as LRC
Late Greek: prōteios adj primary W7
Medieval Greek: perissodaktylos adj having more than normal number of fingers/toes W7
Luwian: pa-ri-ya-an adv/prep beyond; exceedingly, especially RPN
pár-ra-an adv/prep before, in front of RPN
Lycian: pri adv/prep forth; in front of RPN
przze, i- adv/prep front, foremost RPN
Hittite: pa-ra-a adv forth RPN
pí-ra-an adv forth, before RPN
Classical Armenian: aṙaǰi adv before, earlier LRC
aṙaǰi prep before, in front of LRC
aṙaǰin adj first LRC
aṙ prep to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to LRC
Old Persian: pariy adv/prep around, about RPN
Persian: pardah n packsaddle AHD
Avestan: pairi adv/prep around RPN
Sanskrit: páraḥ adj far, distant RPN
pári adv/prep around RPN
puráḥ adv/prep forward, before, in front of RPN
purati vb to precede, go before RPN
purā adv formerly W7
purāṇa adj ancient W7
prá adv/prep before, in front of RPN
pratarám adj.comp further RPN
prati- pfx near, towards, against, in return W7
práti adv/prep towards, near to, against RPN
prathamá-ḥ adj first, foremost RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KLW=Gerhard Köbler: Altniederfränkisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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