Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2b. per-, perə-   'to fare, ferry, transport, go/carry over'

Semantic Field(s): to Bear, Carry, to Overtake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fær n way, passage, journey RPN
fara n.masc farer, traveller ASD
faran, fōr, fōron, faren vb.str.VI to go, ride, travel LRC
faru n.fem way, journey ASD/W7
fe(a)rn n.neut fern, feathery leaf ASD/RPN
feldeware, *feldefare n fieldfare, lit. field-farer W7
fēran, fērde, fēred vb.wk.I to go, travel LRC
ferian, ferig(e)an, fergan vb.wk to ferry, lead ASD/RPN
fōr n.fem course, voyage, movement ASD/RPN
ford n.masc ford ASD/RPN
gefēra n.masc fere ASD/W7
per n pier W7
petersili(g)e n.fem parsley ASD/W7
Middle English: disporten vb to sport W7
fare n journey, passage, activity W7
faren vb to fare W7
feldefare n fieldfare, lit. field-farer W7
fere n fere W7
ferien vb to ferry W7
fern n fern W7
firth n firth W7
ford n ford W7
importen vb to import W7
importune adj importune W7
opportune adj opportune W7
per n pier W7
persely n parsley W7
porche n porch W7
pore n pore W7
portable adj portable W7
portage n portage W7
portal n portal W7
portatif adj portative W7
port(e) n port W7
porter n porter W7
portour n porter W7
purport n purport W7
purslane n purslane W7
report n report W7
salpeter n saltpeter W7
sporten vb to divert, disport W7
supporten vb to support W7
transporten vb to transport W7
warfare n warfare W7
warre n war W7
welfare n welfare W7
werre n warfare W7
English: aporia n doubt, puzzlement, uncertainty AHD
Budgeford prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
comport vb to suit, accord AHD/W7
deport vb.trans to behave, conduct (oneself) AHD/W7
diapir n intrusion of rock core into overburden AHD
emporium n place of trade AHD/W7
export vb to remove, carry away AHD/W7
fare n price charged for transport AHD/W7
fare vb.intrans to go, move, travel AHD/W7
fartlek n conditioning via alternate levels of effort AHD
fere n comrade, companion AHD/W7
fern n seedless flowerless lower vascular plant AHD/W7
ferry vb to carry/convey (esp. by boat) AHD/W7
fieldfare n medium-sized Eurasian thrush AHD/W7
firth n estuary AHD/W7
fjord n narrow inlet of sea between cliffs/steep slopes AHD/W7
ford n shallow part of water crossable by wading AHD/W7
fuhrer n leader AHD/W7
Herefara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
import vb to signify, bear/convey as meaning/portent AHD/W7
important adj significant, marked by importance AHD/W7
importune adj troublesome AHD/W7
opportune adj suitable/convenient AHD/W7
pan n betel leaf AHD/W7
parsley n southern European annual/biennial herb AHD/W7
passport n formal travel document issued by nation AHD/W7
peroneal adj re: fibula AHD/W7
petro- pfx rock, stone AHD
petroleum n oily flammable bituminous liquid W7
petrous adj hard, rocky, resembling stone AHD/W7
pier n intermediate support for (bridge) span AHD/W7
porch n veranda, covered building entrance AHD/W7
pore n minute opening in plant/animal AHD/W7
poromeric n tough porous leather substitute AHD
port n haven, place of safety from storms AHD/W7
port n gate AHD/W7
port n bearing, deportment AHD/W7
port vb to carry, convey W7
portable adj able to be carried AHD/W7
portage n labor of carrying/transporting AHD/W7
portal adj re: entry point AHD/W7
portal n door, entrance, entry point AHD/W7
portamento n continuous glide from one musical tone to another AHD/W7
portative adj portable AHD/W7
portcullis n gateway grating of iron/wood bars/slats AHD
porter n one who carries burdens AHD/W7
porter n person stationed at door/gate to admit/assist entry AHD/W7
portico n colonnade/covered ambulatory at building entrance AHD/W7
portiere n curtain hanging across doorway AHD/W7
portulaca n tropical herb in purslane family AHD/W7
purport n import, meaning implied/conveyed/professed AHD/W7
purslane n succulent herb with perfect regular flowers AHD/W7
rapport n relation(ship) AHD/W7
report n rumor, common talk/account AHD/W7
saltpeter n potassium nitrate AHD/W7
sport vb to show off, make ostentatious display AHD/W7
support vb.trans to bear, endure bravely/quietly AHD/W7
transport vb.trans to carry, convey from place to place AHD/W7
warfare n war, hostilities, military operations between enemies AHD/W7
wayfarer n traveler AHD
wayfaring adj traveling AHD
welfare n state of doing well w.r.t. fortune/happiness/well-being/prosperity AHD/W7
Wídfara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
British English: petrol n gasoline W7
Scots English: firth, frith n bay ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fara vb to go, travel ASD
fare, fera, fer(e) n.fem way, journey ASD
fera vb to lead, ferry ASD
forda n ford ASD
Frisian: ferren vb to go, travel ASD
fieren vb to lead, ferry ASD
Dutch: petersilie n parsley TLL
vāren n.neut fern ASD
vāren vb to go, travel ASD
voer n.neut way, journey ASD
voord n ford ASD
Old Saxon: faran vb to go, travel ASD
fōrian vb to lead, ferry ASD
Low German: f̈ren vb to lead, ferry ASD
Old High German: far n.neut way, journey ASD
faran vb to go W7
farn, farm n.neut fern ASD/W7
ferien, ferren vb to lead, ferry across RPN
fuora n.fem way, journey ASD/RPN
fuoren vb to lead, convey RPN
fuorjan, fōrjan vb to lead, ferry ASD
furt n.neut ford ASD
petarsile n parsley ASD
Middle High German: var n.fem way, journey ASD
varn, varm n.masc fern ASD
varn vb to go, travel ASD
vüeren vb to lead, bear W7
vüerer n bearer W7
vurt n.masc ford ASD
German: Fa(h)r n.fem way, journey ASD
fa(h)ren vb to go, travel ASD
Far(re)n n.masc fern ASD
Fuhre n.fem way, journey ASD
führen vb to lead, ferry ASD
Führer n.masc guide, lit. leader W7
Furt n.fem ford ASD
Petersilie n parsley ASD
Petroleum n kerosene TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fara vb to fare, happen, turn out LRC
fjö(r)ðr n fjord W7
fǫr n.fem journey, expedition LRC
Old Icelandic: farmr n freight, load, cargo RPN
ferja vb to ferry over a river or strait RPN
Icelandic: fara vb to go, travel ASD
ferja vb to transport, ferry by sea ASD
fjörðr n.masc ford ASD
för n.fem way, journey ASD
Norwegian: fjord n fjord W7
Danish: fare vb to go, travel ASD
fjord n.masc/fem bay, gulf ASD
före n.neut way, journey ASD
vb to lead, ferry ASD
persille n parsley TLL
Swedish: fara vb to go, travel ASD
fjärd n.masc bay ASD
fora n.fem way, journey ASD
föra vb to lead, ferry ASD
persilja n parsley TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: faran vb to wander, travel RPN
farjan vb to travel RPN
Latin: apporto, apportare vb to carry, bring to W7
comporto, comportare vb to comport, bring together W7
deporto, deportare vb to deport, carry away W7
emporium n.neut emporium, trading post W7
exporto, exportāre vb to export W7
importans, importantis adj/vb.ptc foreign, imported W7
importō, importāre vb to import, bring in W7
importunus adj bothering, not fitting W7
opportunus adj fitting W7
petra n.fem rock, stone W7
petroselinum n.neut parsley W7
porcillaca n.fem female pig W7
porta n.fem port, gate, passage W7
portatus vb.ptc carried W7
porticus n.masc porch, portico W7
portō, portāre vb to port RPN
portula n.fem small door W7
portulaca n.fem purslane W7
portus n.masc port, haven, harbor RPN
porus n.masc pore, passage W7
properō, properāre vb to hasten RPN
reporto, reportāre vb to transmit, carry back W7
supporto, supportāre vb to support, carry W7
transporto, transportāre vb to transport W7
Vulgar Latin: petrosilium n.neut parsley W7
Late Latin: porcillago n.fem an herb W7
portabilis adj portable W7
portarius n.masc porter, door guardian W7
portator n.masc carrier W7
supporto, supportāre vb to support W7
Medieval Latin: pera n.fem pier W7
portale n.masc portal, city gate; porch W7
portalis adj re: gate W7
New Latin: peroneus n.masc near/related to fibula W7
porta n.fem transverse liver fissure W7
portulaca n.fem genus of tropical herbs W7
Portuguese: pedra n rock, stone TLL
Spanish: piedra n rock, stone TLL
Old French: aporter vb to bring W7
porche n.masc porch, portico W7
porporter vb to convey W7
port n.fem port, harbor W7
porter vb to port W7
portier n.masc porter, doorkeeper W7
portière n.fem door W7
raporter vb to bring back W7
report n.masc report W7
reporter vb to report W7
Anglo-French: purport n.masc purport, tenor W7
purporter vb to contain W7
Middle French: comporter vb to bear, conduct W7
deporter vb to deport W7
important adj important W7
importun adj bothering, not fitting W7
opportun adj opportune W7
passeport n.masc passport W7
passer vb to pass W7
petreux adj stony W7
porcelaine n.fem porcelain W7
pore n.fem pore, passage W7
port n.masc action of carrying W7
portable adj portable W7
portage adj portage W7
portal n.masc portal, city gate; porch W7
portatif adj portative, portable W7
porte n.fem port, gate, door W7
porteour n.masc carrier W7
porter vb to port W7
salpêtre n.masc saltpeter W7
supporter vb to support W7
transporter vb to transport W7
French: pierre n rock, stone TLL
portière n.fem small door W7
rapport n.masc report; link, connection W7
rapporter vb to return, bring back W7
Old Italian: importante adj important W7
Italian: pietra n rock, stone TLL
portamento n.masc gait, bearing W7
portare vb to port W7
pòrtico n.masc portico, porch, arcade W7
Polish: pierzchnać vb to flee RPN
Czech: prchnouti vb to flee RPN
Serbo-Croatian: prhati vb to fly up RPN
Russian Church Slavic: pero n feather RPN
perǫ, pъrati vb to fly RPN
Russian: porxát' vb to flutter, fly about RPN
Homeric Greek: πέτρη n rock, cliff; reef LRC
πόρος n.masc ford, passageway; journey LRC
Greek: ἀπορία n.fem impasse, aporia LS
emporion n.neut trading post W7
emporos n.masc trader, traveler W7
περάω vb to pass over/through RPN
peronē n.fem pin W7
petros n.masc rock, stone W7
petroselinon n.neut parsley W7
πορεύω vb to go, make go LRC
πορίζω vb to cause, carry, supply RPN
Hittite: pár-aš-zi to flee RPN
Avestan: -pārayeite vb.caus to convey across RPN
Sanskrit: parṇá-m n wing, feather RPN
parna n.neut wing, leaf ASD/W7
pāráyati vb.caus to bring over/out RPN
píparti vb to bring/come over RPN
Hindi: pān n betel leaf W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at