Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: perd-   'to fart, break wind (loudly)'

Semantic Field(s): to Fart, Break Wind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: *feortan vb to fart AHD
Middle English: farten, ferten vb to fart CDC
partrich n partridge W7
English: fart vb to break wind AHD
partridge n gallinaceous Old World game bird AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: patrijs n partridge TLL
Old Saxon: fertan vb to fart CDC
Low German: furten vb to fart CDC
Old High German: ferzan vb to fart CDC
Middle High German: varzen, verzen, vurzen vb to fart CDC
German: farzen, furzen vb to fart CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: *ferta, freta vb to fart CDC
Danish: fjerte vb to fart CDC
Swedish: fjerta vb to fart CDC
Latin: pēdo, pēdere vb to fart CDC
perdix, perdīcis n.masc/fem partridge W7
Old French: perdris n.fem partridge W7
Lithuanian: persti vb to fart CDC
Latvian: pirst vb to fart CDC
Greek: πέρδειν vb to fart CDC
πέρδιξ n.masc/fem partridge CLD
Sanskrit: pardate vb to fart CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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