Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. per-, per-g-   'to hit, kill'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Kill


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: compressen vb to compress W7
depressen vb to depress W7
express adj express W7
expressen vb to express W7
impressen vb to impress W7
oppressen vb to oppress W7
preignant adj pregnant W7
preinte n print W7
presse n press W7
pressen vb to press W7
repressen vb to repress W7
suppressen vb to suppress W7
English: appressed adj pressed close to/lying flat against (something) AHD/W7
apres prep after AHD
compress n folded pad/cloth to press upon body part AHD/W7
compress vb to condense, press/squeeze together AHD/W7
depress vb.trans to repress, subjugate AHD/W7
espresso n coffee brewed by steam forced through powdered beans AHD/W7
express adj explicit, directly/distinctly stated AHD/W7
express vb.trans to depict, delineate AHD/W7
impress vb to apply with pressure (to imprint) AHD/W7
imprimatur n license to print/publish AHD/W7
imprint n something (im)printed AHD/W7
oppress vb.trans to suppress AHD/W7
pregnant adj gravid, with child; cogent AHD/W7
press n throng, crowd, crowded condition AHD/W7
press vb to squeeze, act upon via steady force AHD/W7
pressure n act of pressing, being pressed AHD
print n impression, mark made by pressure AHD/W7
repress vb to curb, check by pressure AHD/W7
reprimand n severe/formal reproof/reproach AHD/W7
suppress vb.trans to subdue, put down by force/authority AHD/W7
Latin: adpressus vb.ptc appressed CDC
appressus vb.ptc (ap)pressed W7
apprimo, apprimere vb to press to W7
compressus vb.ptc compressed W7
comprimo, comprimere vb to compress W7
depressus vb.ptc pressed down W7
deprimo, deprimere vb to press down W7
espressus vb.ptc pressed out W7
expressus vb.ptc pressed out W7
exprimō, exprimere, expressī, expressum vb to express, press out LRC
impressus vb.ptc pressed against W7
imprimo, imprimere vb to imprint, press against W7
oppressus vb.ptc oppressed W7
opprimo, opprimere vb to oppress W7
prelum n.neut press W7
premō, premere, pressī, pressum vb to press, oppress LRC
presso, pressāre vb to press W7
pressus vb.ptc pressed, compressed W7
repressus vb.ptc repressed W7
reprimendus vb.ptc reprimanded W7
reprimo, reprimere, repressi, repressum vb to check, restrain, reprimand W7
suppressus vb.ptc suppressed W7
supprimo, supprimere vb to suppress W7
Late Latin: compresso, compressāre vb to press hard/together W7
New Latin: imprimatur n.masc license to print/publish W7
imprimo, imprimere vb to print W7
Old French: après prep apres AHD
expres adj pressed out W7
expresser vb to press out W7
preindre vb to press W7
preint vb.ptc printed W7
preinte n.fem print, track W7
presse n.fem press W7
presser vb to press W7
Middle French: compresse n.fem compress W7
compresser vb to compress W7
depresser vb to depress, push down W7
empreindre vb to imprint W7
empreint vb.ptc with print, printed, full of W7
empreinte n.fem print, trace W7
exprès adv expressly, on purpose W7
expresser vb to press out W7
oppresser vb to oppress W7
preignant vb.pres.ptc pregnant W7
preindre vb to press W7
presser vb to press W7
French: après prep apres TLL
près adv next, besides TLL
réprimande n.fem reprimand W7
Italian: expresso n.masc pressed-out coffee W7
presso adv next, besides TLL
Russian: peret vb to press W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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