Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. perk̑-, prek̑-   'spotted, speckled'

Semantic Field(s): Color


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: erc adj speckled RPN
Old English: forn n trout HGE
Middle English: perche n perch W7
English: perch n small freshwater spiny-finned fish AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: forel n trout TLL
voorn n.fem roach ASD
vóren n.masc roach ASD
Old High German: faro adj colored RPN
for(a)hana n trout ASD/HGE
Middle High German: vorhen n.fem trout ASD
German: Forelle n.fem trout TLL
Swiss German: Forne n.dial trout ASD
North Germanic  
Danish: forel n trout TLL
Swedish: forell n trout TLL
Latin: perca n.fem perch W7
porcus n.masc spiny fish W7
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum adj beautiful, excellent LRC
Middle French: perche n.fem perch W7
Greek: perkē n.fem perch W7
περκνός adj dark-colored RPN
Sanskrit: pṛ́śni-ḥ adj spotted RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
HGE=Vladimir E. Orel: A Handbook of Germanic Etymology (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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