Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. perk̑-, pr̥k̑-   'to open, dig out, rip up; furrow'

Semantic Field(s): to Open, to Dig, Delve, Furrow (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: furh n.fem furrow ASD
furlang, furlung n.neut furlong ASD
Middle English: forow, for(o)we, furwe n furrow CDC/W7
furgh, forgh, furch n furrow CDC/W7
furlong, forlong n furlong CDC/W7
English: Bamfurlong prop.n farm name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
furlong n unit of distance, lit. forrow-long AHD/W7
furrow n trench in earth made by plow AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: furch n.fem furrow ASD
Frisian: furch, furge n furrow ASD
Old Dutch: vore n furrow CDC
Dutch: vōr(e) n.fem furrow ASD/CDC
Middle Low German: vore n furrow CDC
Low German: fore, fare n.fem furrow ASD
Old High German: fur(u)h n.fem furrow ASD
Middle High German: vurch n.fem furrow ASD
German: Furche n.fem furrow ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: for n drain CDC
furask adj (to be) furrowed ASD
Danish: fure n.masc/fem furrow ASD
Swedish: fåra n.fem furrow ASD
Latin: porca n.fem balk, ridge between furrows CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at