Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. pet-, pet-, petə-   'to stretch out (esp. arms)'

Semantic Field(s): to Stretch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fæðm n.masc/fem fathom RPN
Middle English: apassed prep/vb.ptc past MEV
compassen vb to compass W7
expaunden vb to expand W7
fad(o)me, fathome n fathom CDC
panne n pan W7
pas n pace W7
passen vb to pass W7
past adj/vb.ptc passed W7
paten n paten W7
patent n patent W7
spawnen vb to spawn W7
English: compass n range, scope, boundary, circumference W7
compass vb.trans to plot, contrive AHD/W7
expand vb to enlarge, increase in scope/number/extent AHD/W7
fathom n unit of length: span of outstretched arms AHD/W7
pace n rate of movement (on foot) AHD/W7
paella n saffron-flavored Spanish dish AHD
pan n broad, shallow, open container (for domestic use) AHD/W7
pas n right of precedence AHD/W7
paseo n slow easy outdoor walk/stroll AHD
pasqueflower n low perennial herb of crowfoot family AHD/W7
pass n road, channel, opening W7
pass n act/instance of passing W7
pass vb to move, proceed AHD/W7
passacaglia n old Italian/Spanish dance tune AHD/W7
passage n act/process of passing AHD
passage vb to cross, go past/across AHD/W7
passe adj past (one's prime) AHD/W7
passim adv here and there AHD/W7
past adj/prep/n ago, elapsed; after, beyond; time gone by W7
paten n (precious metal) plate for eucharistic bread AHD/W7
patent adj open to public inspection AHD/W7
patina n green film (oxidation) on copper/bronze AHD/W7
patulous adj spreading widely from center AHD/W7
petal n modified leaf of flower corolla AHD/W7
petasos n ancient Greek/Roman low-crowned broad-brimmed hat AHD/W7
repand adj having slightly undulating margin AHD/W7
spawn vb to produce/deposit (eggs) AHD/W7
British English: pandy vb to strike palm of hand with cane/strap AHD
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: vadem n thread ASD
Dutch: kompas n compass TLL
vadem, vaam n.fem fathom ASD
Old Saxon: faðmōs hands and arms ASD
Low German: fadem, faem n thread; cubit ASD
Old High German: fadam n.masc thread ASD
fadum n.neut cubit, fathom RPN
phanna n pan W7
Middle High German: vadem, vaden n.masc thread ASD
German: Fadem, Faden n.masc thread; fathom ASD
Kompass n compass TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: faðmr n.masc fathom W7
fattr adj bent backward W7
Old Icelandic: faðmr n.masc fathom, outstretched arms RPN
Danish: favn n.masc/fem fathom ASD
kompas n compass TLL
pande n forehead TLL
Swedish: famn n.masc fathom ASD
kompass n compass TLL
panna n forehead TLL
Latin: expando, expandere vb to spread out W7
pando, pandere vb to spread W7
pandus adj bent W7
passim adv here and there W7
passus n.masc step W7
passus vb.ptc suffered, experienced W7
patēns, patentis adj/vb.ptc being open W7
pateō, patēre, patuī, patitum vb to lie open, be exposed LRC
patina n.fem shallow dish; female fish monger W7
patulus adj (standing) open W7
petasus n.masc hat of Mercury (with large side-flaps) W7
repandus adj bent backward W7
Vulgar Latin: compasso, compassāre vb to pace off W7
passo, passāre vb to walk W7
Medieval Latin: patina n.fem paten W7
New Latin: patina n.fem dish; female fish-monger W7
petalum n.neut petal W7
Spanish: pasacalle n.masc musical march W7
Old French: compasser vb to measure W7
espandre vb to expand, spread out W7
pas n.masc step W7
passer vb to pass W7
patene n.fem paten W7
Anglo-French: espaundre vb to expand, spread out W7
passer vb to proceed W7
Middle French: passefleur n.fem pasqueflower W7
passer vb to pass W7
patent adj collateral, related to something W7
French: pas n.masc step W7
passage n.masc passage, crossing LRC
passe n.fem pass: channel LRC
passe n.masc master key LRC
passé adj passe, faded, overripe W7
passer vb to pass W7
Ionic: πέτηλος adj broad, flat LRC
Greek: patanē n.fem pot, plate W7
πέτᾶλον n.neut leaf LRC
πέτᾶλος adj broad, flat RPN
πετάννῡμι vb to spread out (sails/clothes) RPN
πέτᾶσος n.masc broad-brimmed felt hat (of Hermes, with large side-flaps) LRC
Avestan: paθana- n wide, broad RPN
Ossetic: fätän n wide RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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