Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pet-, petə- : ptē-, ptō-, Hellenic ptā-   'to fall, tumble down'

Semantic Field(s): to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: eterin n bird LRC
Old English: feðer n.fem wing, feather RPN
feðer-hama, feðer-homa n.wk.masc wings, plumage, lit. feather-coat ASD
īsig-feðera adj lit. icy-feathered LRC
pinn n pen, pin; peg ASD/W7
Middle English: ap(p)etit n appetite MEV/W7
fether n feather W7
impetuous adj impetuous W7
penne n pen W7
pennon n pennon W7
perpetuel adj perpetual W7
petition n petition W7
pin n pin W7
pinacle n pinnacle W7
propicious adj propitious W7
repeten vb to repeat W7
English: acanthopterygian n major division of teleost fishes AHD/W7
aminopterin n folic acid analog AHD
appetite n instinctive desire to eat AHD/W7
apteryx n kiwi AHD/W7
archaeopteryx n primitive Upper Jurassic bird with reptilian characteristics AHD/W7
asymptote n line that is limiting position of tangent to curve AHD/W7
coleoptile n first leaf of monocotyledon forming protective sheath about plumule AHD/W7
compete vb.intrans to vie with another (as if) for prize AHD/W7
dipteral adj dipterous, having (only) 2 wings AHD/CDC
empennage n tail assembly of airplane AHD/W7
feather n light horny epidermal outgrowth (part of external covering of bird's body) AHD/W7
hippopotamus n large herbivorous 4-toed aquatic mammal AHD/W7
impetigo n acute contagious skin disease AHD/W7
impetuous adj marked by force/violence AHD/W7
impetus n impulse, driving force AHD/W7
mecopteran n primitive carnivorous insect AHD/W7
orthopteran n insect with incomplete metamorphosis (incl. mantis, cricket, grasshopper) AHD/W7
panache n ornamental tuft (of feathers) esp. on helmet AHD/W7
pen n implement for writing/drawing with ink etc. AHD/W7
penna n contour feather (distinguished from plume/down feather) AHD/W7
pennate adj pinnate AHD/W7
pennon n long streamer attached to lance as ensign AHD/W7
peripeteia n sudden/unexpected reversal of situation/circumstances AHD/W7
peripteral adj surrounded by single row of columns AHD
perpetual adj everlasting, continuing forever AHD/W7
petition n entreaty, earnest request AHD/W7
petulant adj rude/insolent in speech/behavior AHD/W7
pin n piece of wood/metal used to fasten things AHD/W7
pinna n leaflet/primary division of pinnate leaf/frond AHD/W7
pinnacle n upright architectural member giving weight to buttress/angle pier AHD/W7
pinnate adj resembling feather AHD/W7
pinnati- pfx pinnate(ly) AHD/W7
pinnule n secondary branch of plumose organ AHD/W7
propitious adj benevolent, favorably disposed AHD/W7
proptosis n forward projection/displacement (esp. of eyeball) AHD/W7
pteridology n study of ferns AHD
pterygoid adj re: inferior part of sphenoid bone in vertebrate skull AHD/W7
ptomaine n organic bases formed by putrefactive bacteria acting on nitrogenous matter AHD/W7
ptosis n sagging/prolapse of organ/part AHD/W7
repeat vb to reiterate, say/state again AHD/W7
sauropterygian n extinct (Mesozoic) aquatic reptile AHD
symptom n subjective evidence of disease/physical disturbance AHD/W7
talipot n tall showy fan-leaved palm AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: ve(d)er n.fem feather ASD
Old Saxon: feðera n.fem feather ASD
Low German: fedder n feather ASD
Old High German: federa, fedara n.fem wing, feather ASD/W7
pfinn n peg W7
Middle High German: vëder(e) n.fem feather ASD
German: Feder n.fem feather ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fjǫðr n.fem feather LRC
Icelandic: fjoðr n.fem feather ASD
Danish: fjeder, fjer n.masc/fem feather ASD/TLL
Swedish: fjäder n.masc feather ASD
Latin: accipiter n.masc hawk, falcon, bird of prey LRC
appetitus n.masc appetite W7
appetitus vb.ptc striving after W7
appeto, appetere vb to strive after W7
competo, competere vb to agree, come together, be competent W7
hippopotamus n.masc hippopotamus W7
impeto, impetere vb to attack W7
impetus, impetus n.masc attack, charge LRC
impetus n.masc assault W7
penna n.fem wing, feather W7
pennatus adj pinnate, having feathers W7
perpetuus adj eternal W7
petītiō, petītiōnis n.fem thrust, attack; request, solicitation W7
petitus vb.ptc requested W7
petō, petere, petīvī, petītum vb to seek, attack, head for LRC
petulāns, petulantis adj wanton, impudent, ready to attack W7
pinna n.fem wing, feather W7
pinnatus vb.ptc feathered W7
praepes, praepetis adj favorable, of good omen LRC
propitius adj propitious W7
repeto, repetere vb to ask again W7
Late Latin: competo, competere vb to seek together W7
impetuosus adj impetuous, violent W7
pinnaculum n.neut gable W7
proptosis n.fem act of falling forward W7
symptoma n.neut symptom W7
New Latin: apteryx n.masc kiwi, wingless bird W7
archaeopteryx n.masc primitive bird W7
asymptotus n.masc asymptote W7
coleoptilum n.neut first leaf of monocotyledon W7
pinna n.fem primary division of pinnate leaf W7
pinnati- pfx pinnati- W7
pinnatus adj pinnate, feathered W7
pinnula n.fem pinnule W7
proptosis n.fem forward projection (esp. of eyeball) W7
pterygoides adj wing-shaped W7
ptosis n.fem sagging/prolapse of organ/part W7
Old French: apetit n appetite AHD
Middle French: apetit n.masc appetite W7
impétueux adj impetuous, violent W7
pennache n.masc panache W7
penne n.masc pen, feather W7
penon n.masc feather W7
perpetuel adj perpetual W7
petition n.fem request W7
pétulant adj energetic, happy W7
pinacle n.masc pinnacle W7
repéter vb to repeat W7
French: empennage n.masc feathering (on an arrow) W7
Old Italian: pennacchio n.masc small wing W7
Old Church Slavonic: pero n feather LRC
Greek: asymptōtos adj not meeting W7
hippopotamos n.masc hippopotamus W7
Μεσοποταμία n.fem Mesopotamia LRC
peripeteia n.fem pacing up and down W7
peripiptein vb to fall around, change suddenly W7
πετεινόν n.neut bird LRC
πέτομαι vb to fly, dart, rush RPN
πίπτω vb to fall LRC
potamos n.masc river W7
propiptein vb to fall forward W7
πτερόν n.neut feather, bird's wing RPN
pterygoeidēs adj wing-shaped W7
πτέρυξ n.fem wing, bird LS
πτίλον n.neut down, soft feathers LS
πτῶμα n.neut fall, calamity; corpse, fallen body LRC
πτῶσις n.fem fall, act of falling LRC
πτωχός adj poor LRC
sympiptein vb to meet, happen W7
symptōma n.neut symptom, attribute, happening W7
Hittite: pát-tar n wing, feather RPN
pít-ti-(ya-)an-zi they fly, flee, hasten RPN
Avestan: pataiti vb to fly LRC
Sanskrit: pátati vb to fly, descend, fall fast RPN
patáyati vb.caus to fly, speed RPN
pátram n wing, feather RPN
pátvan- n flight, flying RPN
pātyate vb.pass to let fly, cause to fall RPN
Bengali: tālipōt n palm leaf W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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