Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. peu-   'to repute, explore, understand'

Semantic Field(s): to Understand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: account n account AHD
accounten vb to account W7
counten vb to count W7
deputen vb to depute W7
disputen vb to dispute W7
imputen vb to impute W7
putative adj putative W7
reputen vb to repute W7
English: account n.arch reckoning, computation W7
account vb to give report on AHD/W7
compute vb to count, reckon, calculate TLL
computer n person/thing that computes LRC
count vb to number, name/indicate by units/groups to find total AHD/W7
depute vb.trans to appoint, delegate AHD/W7
dispute vb to argue, debate AHD/W7
impute vb.trans to charge, lay blame/responsibility for AHD/W7
putative adj reputed, commonly accepted/supposed AHD/W7
repute vb.trans to account, hold in thought AHD/W7
Latin: computō, computāre vb to count, tally, compute ELD/W7
dēputo, dēputare vb to depute; count, estimate, consider W7
disputo, disputare vb to dispute, discuss, reckon up W7
imputo, imputare vb to impute, take credit for W7
putatus vb.ptc thought W7
putō, putāre, putāvī, putātum vb to think, reckon LRC
reputo, reputare vb to count, compute; repute, (re)consider W7
Vulgar Latin: imputō, imputāre vb to impute, attribute W7
Late Latin: putativus adj putative, thought to be W7
Old French: acont n account AHD
aconter vb to account, reckon AHD
desputer vb to dispute W7
Middle French: acompter vb to account, amount to W7
compter vb to count W7
deputer vb to depute, send on mission W7
réputer vb to repute W7
French: compter vb to count W7
Old Church Slavonic: pytajǫ, pytajati vb to search, explore, examine IEW
Greek: νήπιος adj foolish, childish LRC
πινυτός adj smart IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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