Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. peu-, peu̯ə- : pū̆-   'to sift, clean, purge, purify'

Semantic Field(s): Pure, Clean


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: ūr adj fresh, green W7
Middle English: pouren vb to pour W7
pur adj pure, untainted W7
purgen vb to purge W7
spurge n spurge W7
English: compurgation n clearing of accused by oaths re: innocence/veracity AHD/W7
depurate vb to cleanse, purify, clarify AHD/CDC
expurgate vb.trans to cleanse of moral harm/error/offense AHD/W7
pour vb to cause to flow/stream AHD/W7
pure adj unmixed with other matter AHD/W7
puree n paste/thick liquid suspension, sieved cooked food AHD/W7
purge vb to clear of moral/ceremonial defilement AHD/W7
spurge n usu. shrubby plant AHD/W7
Latin: compurgatus vb.ptc completely cleared up W7
compūrgō, compūrgāre vb to clear completely W7
expurgatus vb.ptc purged, cleaned out W7
expūrgō, expūrgāre vb to clean out W7
pūrgō, pūrgāre vb to purge, purify W7
puro, purāre vb to purify W7
purus, pura, purum adj pure LRC
putō, putāre vb to clear, cleanse W7
Late Latin: compurgatio n.fem complete clearance W7
Spanish: púro adj pure TLL
Old French: pur adj pure W7
purgier vb to purge, purify W7
Middle French: espurgier vb to purge W7
puré vb.ptc purified W7
purer vb to purify, strain W7
spurge n.fem spurge W7
Sanskrit: punāti vb to cleanse W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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