Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: peuk̑-, and peug̑-   'to pink, stab, stick'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Press, Knife (tool)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: bung n bung W7
impugnen vb to impugn W7
oppugnen vb to attack, repudiate W7
pigmei n pygmy W7
pinken vb to pink W7
poinaunt adj poignant W7
point n point W7
ponson n puncheon W7
repugnen vb to repugn W7
English: acupuncture n puncturing body to relieve pain/cure disease AHD/W7
bontebok n coastal S African antelope AHD
bung n stopper in hole in cask AHD/W7
compunction n remorse, anxiety arising from guilt AHD/W7
expunge vb.trans to obliterate, strike out, mark for deletion AHD/W7
impugn vb.trans to assail AHD/W7
oppugn vb.trans to attack, fight against AHD/W7
pink vb.trans to stab, pierce AHD/W7
poignant adj pungent AHD/W7
point n item, individual detail AHD/W7
point-device adj precise, meticulous, scrupulously neat/correct AHD
pointillism n applying (to surface) color dots that blend together AHD/W7
poniard n dagger with slender square/triangular blade AHD/W7
pontil n punty: iron rod used in glass-making AHD/CDC
pugilism n boxing AHD/W7
pugnacious adj combative, truculent, belligerent by nature AHD/W7
puncheon n pointed tool for piercing/working on stone AHD/W7
punctilio n nice conduct detail in ceremony/observance AHD/W7
punctual adj having point-like nature AHD/W7
punctuate vb to mark/divide (text) with punctuation marks AHD/W7
puncture n act/result of puncturing AHD/W7
pungent adj having stiff/sharp point AHD/W7
pygmaean adj dwarfish, re: pygmy AHD/W7
Pygmy prop.n member of race of dwarfs (Greek mythology) AHD
pygmy n dwarf W7
repugn vb to offer objection/resistance/opposition AHD/W7
spontoon n short infantry pike AHD/W7
trapunto n whole cloth quilting to produce raised surface AHD
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: bonghe n bung W7
bonne n bung W7
Afrikaans: bontebok n bontebok AHD
Latin: expungo, expungere vb to cancel, mark for deletion (by dots) W7
inpugno, inpugnāre vb to impugn, assault W7
oppūgnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātum vb to attack, overthrow LRC
pugil n.masc boxer W7
pugnax, pugnacis adj pugnacious W7
pugno, pugnare vb to fight W7
pugnus n.masc fist W7
puncta n.fem strike W7
punctum n.neut point, vote W7
punctura n.fem puncture, small hole W7
punctus vb.ptc pierced, having a hole W7
pungens, pungentis adj/vb.ptc stinging W7
pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctum vb to sting, stab, puncture W7
pygmaeus adj pygmaean W7
repugno, repugnare vb to fight against W7
Vulgar Latin: punctio, punctiāre vb to prick W7
punctio, punctionis n.fem act of making a hole W7
Medieval Latin: punctualis adj punctual W7
punctuatus vb.ptc pointed, punctuated W7
punctuo, punctuare vb to point, provide punctuation marks W7
Spanish: puntilloso adj preoccupied by unimportant things Sal/W7
punto n.masc point W7
Old French: point n.masc prick, puncture, point in time/space W7
pointe n.fem sharp end W7
Middle French: impugner vb to assault W7
poignant vb.pres.ptc poignant, gripping W7
poignard n.masc short knife W7
poinçon n.masc pointed tool W7
poindre vb to prick, sting W7
poing n.masc fist W7
répugner vb to disgust W7
French: point n.masc spot, dot W7
pointiller vb to stipple W7
pointilleux adj who likes pointillism, who is overly meticulous W7
pointillisme n.masc pointillism W7
Italian: punta n.fem sharp point W7
puntiglio n.masc scruple, point of honor W7
spuntone n.masc pointed tool; crag W7
Homeric Greek: πυγμή n.fem fist, boxing (match) LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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