Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. plā-k- : plə-k-, ple-k- : plō̆-k-, plei-k-, and pelə-g- : plā-g- : plə-g-   'flat, wide, broad; spread out'

Semantic Field(s): Flat, Wide, Broad, to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flēan vb.str to flay ASD/W7
flōc n.neut fluke W7
flōh n.fem (flat) piece of stone W7
Middle English: flagge n reed, rush W7
flake n flake W7
flaw n flaw W7
fluke n fluke W7
placebo n placebo W7
plai(d) n plea W7
plaiden vb to plead, institute lawsuit W7
plank n plank W7
plesaunt adj pleasant W7
plesen vb to please W7
souple adj supple W7
supplicaten vb to supplicate W7
English: Archipelago prop.n Aegean Sea AHD/W7
archipelago n sea/expanse of water with scattered islands AHD/W7
complacent adj satisfied AHD/W7
flag n hard evenly stratified stone AHD/W7
flake n thin piece, small part AHD/W7
flake n tray/platform for drying foodstuffs AHD/W7
flaw n fault, defect, fragment AHD/W7
floe n large floating ice sheet AHD/W7
fluke n sole, flatfish AHD/W7
implacable adj not placable LRC
pelagic adj oceanic, re: open sea AHD/W7
placable adj tolerant, easily calmed/pacified AHD
placate vb.trans to soothe, appease, mollify AHD/W7
placebo n vespers for dead in Roman Catholic Church AHD/W7
placenta n vascular organ uniting fetus to mammalian uterus AHD/W7
placid adj peaceful, undisturbed AHD/W7
placoderm n (extinct) fish with bony armor plates AHD
placoid adj re: elasmobranch scale with enamel-tipped spine AHD/W7
plagal adj having keynote on 4th scale step AHD/W7
plagiary n plagiarist AHD/W7
planchet n coin blank: flat metal disk AHD
plank n thick heavy board AHD/W7
playa n flat bottom of undrained desert basin AHD/W7
plea n legal suit/action AHD/W7
plead, pled vb to argue case/cause in law court AHD/W7
pleasant adj agreeable, giving pleasure AHD/W7
please vb to give/afford pleasure/satisfaction AHD/W7
supple adj compliant, obsequious AHD/W7
supplicate vb to make humble entreaty AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: archipel n archipelago CDC
vlae(ghe)n vb to flay ASD
vlag n flag TLL
vlakte n plain TLL
Old High German: flah adj smooth W7
German: Archipel n archipelago CDC
Flagge n flag TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: flaga n slab W7
flaki adj smooth W7
Icelandic: flā vb to flay ASD
flōki n.masc (kind of) halibut ASD
Norwegian: flak n disk W7
flo n flat layer W7
Danish: flag n flag TLL
Swedish: flaga n flake, flaw W7
flagg n flag TLL
flå vb to flay ASD
Latin: complacens, complacentis adj/vb.ptc pleasing, trying to please W7
complaceo, complacēre vb to please greatly W7
pelagicus adj re: deep sea W7
pelagus n sea AHD
placatus vb.ptc pleased, placated W7
placenta n.fem flat cake W7
placeō, placēre, placuī, placitum vb to please, placate LRC
placidus adj calm, tranquil, placid W7
placitus vb.ptc placated W7
placo, placāre vb to please, placate W7
plaga n.fem flat surface, tract W7
plaga n.fem net, snare, trap W7
plagiārius n.masc kidnapper; plagiarist W7
plagium n.neut hunting net W7
planca adj one with flat feet W7
plico, plicāre vb to fold W7
supplex, supplicis adj kneeling, suppliant, submissive W7
supplico, supplicare vb to kneel, beseech, supplicate W7
Medieval Latin: placitum n.neut decree, decision W7
Old Portuguese: arcepelago n archipelago CDC
Portuguese: archipelago n archipelago CDC
Old Spanish: arcipielago n archipelago CDC
Spanish: archipielago n archipelago CDC
playa n.fem beach W7
Old French: plaid n.masc plea W7
plait n.masc plea W7
souple adj supple, submissive W7
Old North French: planke n.fem plank W7
Middle French: plaid n.masc plea W7
plaidier vb to plead W7
plairir vb to please W7
plaisant adj pleasant W7
plaisir n.masc pleasure W7
French: archipelague n archipelago CDC
Old Occitan: archipel n archipelago CDC
Italian: arcipelago n.masc archipelago, chief sea W7
pelago n sea AHD
Homeric Greek: πέλαγος n.masc (open) sea LRC
Greek: pelagikos adj re: sea W7
pelagos n sea AHD
Πελασγικός adj Pelasgian LRC
plagios adj oblique, sideways W7
plagos n.masc side W7
plakous adj flat, cake-shaped W7
plax n.fem flat surface W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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