Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. plāk-, plāg-, also plēk-, plēg-   'to hit, beat, fling'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: apoplexie n apoplexy W7
compleynen vb to complain W7
flingen, flengen vb to fling W2I
plage n plague W7
plaint n plaint W7
English: apoplexy n stroke, sudden loss/diminution of motion/sensation/consciousness AHD/W7
cataplexy n sudden loss of muscle control due to strong emotion AHD/W7
complain vb.intrans to express pain/grief/discontent AHD/W7
complaint n expression of pain/grief/dissatisfaction W9
fling, flung vb.str to hurl, throw; rush/spring with haste/violence AHD/W2I
paraplegia n lower-body paralysis AHD/W7
plague n wound, blow; calamity, dire affliction AHD/W7
plague vb to afflict; annoy TLL
plaint n wail, lamentation AHD/W7
plangent adj having loud reverberating sound AHD/W7
plankton n plant/animal life drifting in water AHD/W7
plectrum n small pick for stringed instrument AHD/W7
plexor n small rubber-headed hammer AHD
West Germanic  
Old High German: fluokhōn vb to curse W7
German: Kataplexie n cataplexy W7
Plankton n plankton W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: flā vb to flay W7
flengja vb to whip W7
Danish: plage vb to plague LRC
Swedish: plåga vb to plague LRC
Latin: plāga n.fem plague, stroke W7
plangens, plangentis adj/vb.ptc lamenting W7
plango, plangere, planxi, planctum vb to beat, strike; lament, bewail W7
plectrum n.neut plectrum W7
Vulgar Latin: complango, complangere vb to complain W7
Late Latin: apoplexia n.fem apoplexy W7
Medieval Latin: plagalis adj consistent in strikes W7
New Latin: paraplegia n.fem paraplegia W7
Portuguese: praga n wound TLL
Spanish: llaga n wound TLL
Old French: apoplexie n apoplexy AHD
Middle French: complaindre vb to complain W7
plage n.fem blow W7
plaint n.masc plaint, complaint W7
French: apoplexie n.fem apoplexy W7
plaie n wound TLL
Italian: piaga n wound TLL
Old Church Slavonic: plakati, plačǫ, plačeši vb to weep, mourn LRC
Homeric Greek: πλάζω vb to strike, drive astray LRC
πλήσσω vb to beat, strike LRC
Greek: apoplēxia n.fem apoplexy W7
apoplēssein vb to cripple via stroke W7
kataplēxis n.fem cataplexy W7
kataplēssein vb to strike down, terrify W7
paraplēgiē n.fem paraplegia W7
plazesthai vb to drift, wander W7
planktos adj drifting W7
plēktron n.neut plectrum W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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