Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: plā̆t-, plā̆d-, plē̆t-, plō̆t-, plət-   'flat, wide, broad; spread out'

Semantic Field(s): Flat, Wide, Broad, to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cland n.fem plant, offspring IED/W7
Scots Gaelic: clann n.fem clan, offspring GE/W7
Old English: flet(t) n.neut floor, ground underfoot ASD/IEW
plante n.fem plant, shoot ASD/W7
plantian vb to plant W7
Middle English: clan n clan W7
flat adj flat W7
flateren vb to flatter W7
flet n flat, ground underfoot OED
flounder n flounder W7
place n place W7
plaice n plaice W7
plane n plane W7
plantain n plantain W7
plante n plant W7
planten vb to plant W7
plate n plate W7
supplanten vb to supplant W7
transplaunten vb to transplant W7
English: clan n Celtic households claiming patrilineal descent from common ancestor AHD/W7
flan n custard dessert AHD
flat adj having continuous horizontal surface AHD/W7
flat n floor/story/apartment in building W7
flatter vb to praise excessively AHD/W7
flet n tree house in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
flounder n type of flatfish AHD/W7
piazza n open square in Italian/European town AHD/W7
place n way for transit/admission AHD/W7
plaice n flatfish AHD/W7
plan n drawing/diagram (on flat surface) AHD/W7
plane n tree with palmately lobed leaves AHD/W7
plant n young tree/vine/shrub/herb AHD/W7
plant vb to put/set in ground for growth AHD/W7
plantain n short-stemmed herb with elliptical leaves AHD/W7
plantar adj re: sole of foot AHD/W7
plate n thin flat piece of smooth material AHD/W7
plateau n tableland, raised land area with level surface AHD/W7
platina n (impure natural) platinum AHD
platinum n heavy grayish white precious metal AHD/W7
platitude n triteness, being dull/insipid AHD/W7
platy n small stocky Mexican topminnow AHD/W7
plaza n public square in city/town AHD/W7
supplant vb.trans to supersede (esp. by force/treachery) AHD/W7
transplant vb to lift/reset (a plant) in different soil/location AHD/W7
Scots English: flet(t) n house ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: flet n house ASD
Dutch: plaats n place, city TLL
Old Saxon: flet(ti) n.neut hall, (floor of) house ASD
Low German: flet n bedroom in upper floor of peasant's house ASD
Old High German: flaz adj flat W7
pflanza n plant ASD
pflanzōn vb to plant ASD
Middle High German: vletze n.neut floor ASD
German: Flunder n.fem flounder LRC
Pflanze n.fem plant LRC
pflanzen vb to plant LRC
Platz n plaza TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: flatr adj flat W7
flet n.neut boards of hall used for seating LRC
flyþra n flounder W7
Old Icelandic: flatr adj flat, level RPN
Icelandic: flet n.neut house, set of rooms ASD
planta n plant ASD
planta vb to plant ASD
Danish: plads n plaza TLL
Swedish: flundra n plaice, flounder TLL
Latin: planta n.fem green twig/graft/cutting; sole of foot W7
plantago, plantaginis n.fem type of weed W7
plantaris adj re: sole of foot W7
planto, plantāre vb to plant W7
planum n.neut flat ground W7
planus adj flat, plain W7
platanus n.fem platane, plane tree W7
platea n.fem broad street W7
supplanto, supplantare vb to overthrow by tripping up W7
Vulgar Latin: plattus adj broad, flat W7
Late Latin: planto, plantāre vb to plant, fix in place W7
platensis n.fem type of flatfish W7
transplanto, transplantāre vb to plant somewhere else W7
New Latin: platinum n.neut metallic element W7
Platypoecilus n.masc (genus name) W7
Old Spanish: plata n.fem silver W7
Spanish: plata n.fem silver W7
platina n.fem platinum W7
plaza n.fem plaza W7
Old French: flaon n flan AHD
plaïs n.masc plaice (flatfish) W7
plantain n.masc type of weed W7
plat adj flat W7
plate n.fem plate, (piece of) silver W7
Middle French: place n.fem open space W7
plat adj flat W7
plat n.masc dish, plate W7
plateau n.masc platter W7
supplanter vb to supplant W7
French: flan n flan AHD
plafond n ceiling LRC
plan n.masc plan W7
plane n.masc platane, plane tree W7
planter vb to plant, fix in place W7
plat adj dull, flat W7
plateau n.masc platter W7
platitude n.fem platitude W7
Italian: piazza n.fem market, piazza W7
Greek: platanos n.fem platane, plane tree W7
πλατεῖα n.fem open space LS
πλατύς adj flat, wide, broad RPN
Sanskrit: pṛthu adj broad W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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