Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: plek̑-   'to ply, pleach, plait, weave'

Semantic Field(s): to Fold, to Plait, to Weave


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fle(a)x n.neut flax W7/ASD
Middle English: ap(p)lien, ap(p)lyen vb to apply W7/CDC
complice n complice W7
displayen vb to display W7
emploien vb to employ W7
exploit n exploit W7
flax n flax W7
plechen vb to pleach W7
pleit n pleat W7
plete n plait W7
pleten vb to pleat W7
plien vb to ply, bend, fold W7
plit n plight W7
replien vb to reply W7
splayen vb to splay W7
English: amplexicaul adj sessile with base/stipules clasping stem AHD/W7
amplexus n amphibian pseudocopulation (male embraces female) AHD
apply vb to put to use (for some practical purpose) AHD/W7
complect vb to embrace, interweave, join by twining together AHD/CDC
complex adj composite, composed of multiple parts AHD/W7
complicate adj complex, intricate AHD/W7
complice n associate AHD/W7
deploy vb to extend (military unit) esp. in width AHD/W7
display vb to spread/stretch out AHD/W7
employ vb.trans to make use of AHD/W7
explicate vb.trans to give detailed explanation of AHD/W7
explicit adj with full clear expression AHD/W7
exploit n act, deed AHD/W7
flax n slender erect annual herb AHD/W7
implicate vb.trans to entwine, fold/twist together AHD/W7
implicit adj implied, able to be understood AHD/W7
multiplex adj re: multiple parts/elements AHD
perplexed adj puzzled, filled with confusion/bewilderment AHD
plait n pleat AHD/W7
plait vb to pleat, braid, weave W7
pleach vb.trans to plait, interlace AHD/W7
pleat n fold/crease in cloth doubled over AHD/W7
pleat vb.trans to fold AHD/W7
plecopteran n stonefly: primitive winged insect AHD
plectognath n fish with bony plates/spines/ossicles AHD/W7
plexus n network of interlacing nerves/blood vessels AHD/W7
pliant adj pliable, easily bent/flexed AHD
plica n fold, folded part AHD/W7
plicate adj folded lengthwise (like fan) AHD/W7
plight n state, condition AHD/W7
plisse n textile with permanently puckered designs AHD/W7
ply vb.trans to twist together AHD/W7
replicate vb.trans to repeat, duplicate AHD/W7
reply vb to respond in words/writing AHD/W7
splay vb to expand, spread out AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: flax n.neut flax ASD
Frisian: flægs n flax ASD
Dutch: vlas n.neut flax ASD
Low German: flass n.neut flax ASD
Old High German: flahs n.masc flax ASD
flehtan vb to braid W7
Middle High German: vlahs n.masc flax ASD
German: Flachs n.masc flax ASD
Latin: amplector, amplectī vb.dep to entwine, embrace W7
amplexus vb.ptc entwined, embraced W7
applico, applicāre vb to study, apply something to W7
caulis n.masc stem, stalk, cabbage W7
complector, complecti vb.dep to embrace, comprise (multiple objects) W7
complexus vb.ptc embraced, comprised in W7
complicatus vb.ptc folded together, confused W7
complico, complicare vb to fold together, confuse W7
displico, displicāre vb to scatter W7
explicatus vb.ptc unfolded, explained W7
explicitus vb.ptc deployed, explained W7
explico, explicare vb to unfold, explain W7
implicatus vb.ptc enfolded, entangled W7
implicitus vb.ptc enfolded, entangled W7
implico, implicare, implicāvi, implicātum vb to enfold, cling to W7
implico, implicare, implicui, implicitum vb to enfold, entangle W7
plecto, plectere vb to braid, twine, weave W7
plexus n.masc braid, network W7
plexus vb.ptc involved, threaded W7
plicatus vb.ptc folded W7
plico, plicare, plicāvi, plicātum vb to fold (together) W7
plico, plicare, plicui, plicitum vb to fold (together) W7
replico, replicare vb to fold back, turn over W7
Vulgar Latin: plictus n.masc fold W7
plictus vb.ptc folded W7
Late Latin: complex adj complex, manifold W7
replicatus vb.ptc replicated W7
replico, replicare vb to replicate W7
Medieval Latin: explicitus vb.ptc unfolded, explained W7
plica n.fem fold (in garment) W7
New Latin: amplexicaulis adj with entwined stems W7
plexus n.masc network of interwoven blood vessels W7
Portuguese: applicar vb to apply CDC
Spanish: aplicar vb to apply CDC
Old French: aplier vb to apply CDC
exploit n.masc exploit, noble deed W7
Old North French: plechier vb to plait, braid, interlace W7
Anglo-French: despleier vb to display W7
plit n.masc pleat W7
Middle French: aplier vb to apply W7
complice adj accomplice W7
emploier vb to employ, involve W7
pleit vb.ptc pleated W7
pli n.masc pleat W7
plier vb to fold, bend W7
plisser vb to pleat, wrinkle W7
replier vb to pleat again W7
French: appliquer vb to apply CDC
déployer vb to deploy W7
explicite adj explicit W7
plissé vb.ptc creased, wrinkled, pleated W7
plisser vb to pleat, crease, wrinkle W7
Italian: applicare vb to apply CDC
Greek: gnathos n.fem jaw W7
plekein vb to plait, braid, weave W7
plektos adj plaited, twisted, woven W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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