Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: plēk̑-, plək̑-, and plēik̑-, plīk̑-   'to flay, peel, rip, tear off'

Semantic Field(s): to Flay, Skin, to Tear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flǣsc n.neut flesh ASD
flǣsc-hama, flǣsc-homa n.wk.masc body, carcass, lit. flesh-coat ASD
flēan vb.str to flay ASD/RPN
flicce n flitch W7
Middle English: flecken vb to fleck W7
flen vb to flay W7
flesh n flesh W7
flicche n flitch W7
English: flay vb.trans to skin, strip off skin/surface of AHD/W7
fleck vb.trans to spot, streak AHD/W7
flesh n soft parts of animal (esp. vertebrate) body AHD/W7
flitch n side of pork cured/smoked as bacon AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: flask, flesk n.neut flesh ASD
Frisian: flæsck, flæsch n flesh ASD
Dutch: vlae(ghe)n vb to flay ASD
vleesch n.neut flesh ASD
Old Saxon: flēsk, fleisk n.neut flesh ASD
Low German: fleesk, fleesch n.neut flesh ASD
flikke n.masc spot, piece ASD
Old High German: fleccho n.masc spot ASD
fleisk, fleisc n.neut flesh ASD/W7
Middle High German: vlëc n.masc piece ASD
vleisch n.neut flesh ASD
German: Fleck n.masc/neut rag, piece, spot, place ASD
Flecke n.masc rag, piece, spot, place ASD
Fleisch n.neut flesh ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: flā vb to flay W7
flekkōttr n spot W7
flekkr n spot W7
Old Icelandic: flakna vb to flake off, split RPN
flá vb to flay RPN
Icelandic: flā vb to flay ASD
flesk n.neut flesh, pork, ham, bacon ASD
flik n.fem rag ASD
flikki n.neut flitch of bacon ASD
Danish: flesk n.neut flesh, pork, bacon ASD
flik(ke) n.masc/fem piece, rag ASD
Swedish: flik n.masc lap ASD
flå vb to flay ASD
fläsk n.neut flesh, pork, bacon ASD
Lithuanian: plėš vb to tear W7
plyšỹs n.masc fissure, cleft LRC
plýšti vb to split, break, burst RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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