Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pleu-   'to flee, fly, run; flow, swim'

Semantic Field(s): to Fly, to Run, to Flow, to Swim


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flēgan vb to put to flight W7
flēogan, flēag, flugon, flogen vb.str.II to flee, fly LRC
flēoge n.fem fly W7
flēon, fliōn vb.str to flee, put to flight ASD/W7
flēot, flīet n.masc where vessels float: river, estuary ASD/W7
flēotan vb.str to float ASD/W7
flīogan vb.str.II to flee, fly ASD
flōd n.masc/neut flood ASD/W7
flota n.masc fleet, ship, vessel W7
floterian, flotorian vb.wk to float, fly, flutter ASD/W7
flotian vb.wk to float ASD/W7
flōwan vb.str to flow ASD/W7
-flycge sfx fledge W7
flyht, fliht n.masc flight ASD/W7
fugel, fugol, fugul n.masc fowl ASD
Middle English: flayen vb to frighten W7
flegge adj able to fly W7
flen vb to flee W7
flete n fleet W7
fleten vb to fleet W7
flie n fly W7
flien vb to fly W7
flight n flight W7
fliht n flight W7
flitten vb to flit W7
flood n flood W7
flote n float, boat W7
floteren vb to float, flutter W7
flowen vb to flow W7
flue n flue AHD
fluht n flight W7
foul n fowl W7
plover n plover W7
pluvyous adj pluvious W7
English: fledge vb to acquire feathers necessary for flight AHD/W7
flee, fled vb.str to fly, run away from evil/danger AHD/W7
fleet n creek, shallow inlet AHD/W7
fleet vb to float AHD/W7
flight n act/instance of passing through air on wings AHD/W7
flight n act/instance of fleeing/running away AHD/W7
flit vb.intrans to go quickly/abruptly from place to place AHD/W7
float n act/instance of floating; thing that floats AHD/W7
Flói prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
flood n rising/overflowing of water (esp. on normally dry land) AHD/W7
flotilla n fleet of ships AHD/W7
flotsam n floating wreckage of ship/cargo AHD/W7
flow vb to move/issue in stream AHD/W7
flue n fishing net AHD
flugelhorn n bugle with valves AHD
fluster vb to make tipsy AHD/W7
flutter vb to flap wings rapidly AHD/W7
fly, flew, flown vb to move in/pass through air using wings AHD/W7
fly n winged insect AHD/W7
fowl n bird AHD/W7
Greyflood prop.n river of Eriador in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pleuston n macroscopic vegetation floating in mats on/near fresh water surface AHD/W7
plover n shore-dwelling bird with short hard-tipped bill AHD/W7
Pluto prop.n (planet named for) god of underworld (Greek/Roman mythology) LRC
plutocracy n government by the wealthy AHD/W7
plutography n media describing lives of rich/famous people AHD
pluvial adj re: rain AHD/W7
pluvious adj rainy, re: rain AHD/W7
pyelitis n acute inflammation of kidney pelvis AHD
Scots English: fleit, flete vb to float, swim ASD
fley vb.trans to frighten W7
flocht n flight ASD
flote n fleet ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: flecht n.fem flight ASD
flet n.neut river ASD
flia vb to flee, put to flight ASD
fliaga vb to flee, fly ASD
fliata vb to float, swim ASD
flo(e)d n.neut flood ASD
fugel n fowl ASD
Frisian: flan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
flechte n flight ASD
flega vb to flee, fly ASD
floede n flood ASD
fœggel, fugil n fowl ASD
Middle Dutch: vluuwe n flue AHD
Dutch: fleugel n wing TLL
paraplu n umbrella TLL
vlieden vb to flee, put to flight ASD
vlieg n.fem fly ASD
vliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
vliet n.masc rivulet, brook ASD
vlieten vb to float, swim ASD
vloed n.masc flood ASD
vlœien vb to flow, flood ASD
vloot n.fem fleet ASD
vlugt n.fem flight ASD
vogel n.masc fowl ASD
Old Saxon: fliohan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
fliotan vb to float, swim ASD
fliuga n.fem fly ASD
flōd, fluod n.masc/fem/neut flood ASD
fluht n.fem flight ASD
fluot n.fem flood ASD
fugal n fowl ASD
Low German: fleet n small river ASD
flege n.fem fly ASD
flegen vb to flee, fly ASD
fleten vb to float, swim ASD
floien, flojen vb to flow, flood ASD
flood n.fem flood ASD
flugt n.fem flight ASD
flugten vb to flee, put to flight ASD
vagel n.masc fowl ASD
Old High German: flawjai, flewēn vb to flow, flood ASD
fleoga, fliega, fliuga n.fem fly ASD
fleogan, fliugan vb to flee, fly ASD
fleozan, fliuzan vb to float, swim ASD
flioga n fly W7
fliogan vb to fly W7
fliohan vb to flee W7
fliozzan vb to float W7
fliuhan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
flouwen vb to rinse, wash W7
flōz n raft, stream W7
flucki adj able to fly W7
fluht n.fem flight ASD/W7
fluot, flōt n.fem flood, stream ASD/W7
fluz n.masc river ASD
fogal, fugal n.masc fowl ASD
Middle High German: vlæ(j)en vb to flow, flood ASD
vliege n.fem fly ASD
vliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
vliehen vb to flee, put to flight ASD
vliez n.masc/neut rivulet ASD
vliuzen vb to float, swim ASD
vluht n.fem flight ASD
vluot n.masc/fem flood ASD
vogel n.masc fowl ASD
German: Fliege n.fem fly ASD
fliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
fliehen vb to flee, put to flight ASD
fliessen vb.str to float, swim ASD
Flosse n.fem fin TLL
Flotte n.fem fleet ASD
Flucht n.fem flight ASD
Flügel n.masc wing TLL
Flügelhorn n.neut trumpet, flugelhorn LRC
Fluß n.masc stream, river, running water ASD
Fluth n.fem flood ASD
Vogel n.masc fowl LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: floti n.masc fleet, ship ASD
flóð n.neut flood LRC
flytjask vb to move W7
fugl n.masc fowl LRC
Old Icelandic: flói n.masc fen, moor, marsh; firth, bay ICE/IEW
Icelandic: flaustur vb to hurry W7
fljōt n.neut river ASD
fljōta vb to float, swim ASD
fljūga vb to flee, fly ASD
flōa vb to flow, flood ASD
flōð n.neut inundation, deluge ASD
fluga n.fem fly ASD
flýja vb to flee, put to flight ASD
fogl, fugl n.masc fowl ASD
Danish: flaade n.masc/fem fleet ASD
flod n.masc/fem flood ASD
flue n.masc/fem fly ASD
flugt n.masc/fem flight ASD
flyde vb to float, swim ASD
flye vb to flee, put to flight ASD
flyve vb to flee, fly ASD
fugl n.masc/fem fowl ASD
paraply n umbrella TLL
Swedish: flod n.masc flood, river ASD
flotta n.fem fleet ASD
fluga n.fem fly ASD
fly vb to flee, put to flight ASD
flyga vb to flee, fly ASD
flykt n.masc flight ASD
flyta vb to float, swim ASD
fågel n.masc fowl ASD
paraply n umbrella TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: fláutjan vb.wk.I to be pretentious LRC
flōdus n.fem flood, stream, river ASD
fugls n.str.masc fowl LRC
þliuhan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
Latin: fluvius, fluviī n.masc rain, stream, river LRC
pluo, pluere vb to rain W7
Pluto, Plutonis prop.n.masc Pluto: god of the underworld W7
pluvia n.fem rain W7
pluvialis adj re: rain W7
pluvi(os)us adj rainy W7
Vulgar Latin: pluviarius adj re: rain W7
Portuguese: chover vb to rain TLL
Spanish: flota n.fem fleet W7
flotilla n.fem.dim small fleet W7
llover vb to rain TLL
Old French: flote n.fem fleet W7
Anglo-French: floteson n.masc flotsam W7
Middle French: plover n.masc plover W7
French: parapluie n.masc umbrella LRC
pleuvoir vb to rain TLL
pluie n.fem rain, shower LRC
Italian: piovere vb to rain TLL
Lithuanian: pláju vb to wash LRC
Old Church Slavonic: pluti vb to flow LRC
Homeric Greek: πλέω vb to sail LRC
πλώω vb to swim, float LRC
Greek: planktos adj drifting W7
πλοῖον n.neut ship, vessel LRC
πλουτο-κρᾶτία n.fem plutocracy, power of wealth LRC
πλοῦτος n.masc wealth, riches LRC
Πλούτων prop.n.masc Pluto: god of the underworld LRC
Armenian: luanam vb to wash LRC
Avestan: frāvayōit vb to swim LRC
Sanskrit: plávate vb to float, swim, fly LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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