Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pneu-   'to pant, breathe'

Semantic Field(s): to Breathe; Breath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fnē(o)san vb to sneeze ASD/W7
Middle English: fnesen vb to sneeze W7
snesen vb to sneeze W7
snoren vb to snore W7
snorten vb to snort W7
English: apnea n temporary breathing absence/cessation AHD
dipnoan adj re: fish with gills/lungs/pulmonary circulation AHD/W7
dyspnea n labored/difficult respiration AHD/W7
eupnea n normal respiration AHD/W7
pleurodynia n paroxysmal pain/soreness of muscles between ribs AHD
pneuma n soul, vital spirit AHD
pneumatic adj re: air/wind/gas AHD/W7
pneumonia n lung disease caused by infection/irritation AHD/W7
pneumonic adj pulmonic, re: lungs AHD/W7
polypnea n panting, rapid breathing AHD
sneer vb to smile/laugh with facial contortions expressing scorn/contempt AHD/W7
sneeze vb.intrans to make sudden violent audible expiration of breath AHD/W7
snore n act/noise of snoring W7
snore vb to breathe with rough hoarse noise during sleep AHD/W7
snort vb to blow violently through nose with rough harsh sound AHD/W7
tachypnea n hyperventilation, rapid breathing AHD
West Germanic  
Middle Low German: snorren vb to snore, drone W7
Middle High German: pfnūsen vb to snort, sneeze W7
snerren vb to gossip, chatter W7
German: Schnarchen n.neut snore LRC
schnarchen vb to snore LRC
Schnarcher n.masc snorer LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: fnœsa vb to sneeze ASD
Latin: dyspnoea n.fem dyspnea W7
pneumaticus adj re: breath/breathing W7
New Latin: apnea n apnea AHD
eupnea n.fem eupnea W7
pneumonia n.fem pneumonia W7
pneumonicus adj pneumonic W7
Homeric Greek: πνεύμων n.masc lung LRC
πνέω, πνείω vb to breathe, live LRC
πνοιή n.fem breath, breathing LRC
Greek: ἄ-πνοος adj lifeless, without breath LS
dipnoos adj with two breathing holes W7
dyspnoia n.fem dyspnea, shortness of breath W7
dyspnoos adj short of breath W7
εὔπνοια n.fem fragrance; easiness of breathing LRC
πνεῦμα n.neut breath, spirit LRC
πνευμᾶτικός adj pneumatic; spiritual LRC
pneumonia n.fem pneumonia W7
pneumonikos adj pneumonic W7
πνοῆ n.fem wind, breath LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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