Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pn̥ksti-   'fist'

Semantic Field(s): Hand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fȳst n.fem fist ASD
Middle English: fist n fist W7
English: fist n hand clenched with fingers rolled into palm AHD/W7
foist vb.trans to insert/introduce surreptitiously/without warrant AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fest n.fem fist ASD
Middle Dutch: vuyst n fist W7
vuysten vb to take into hand W7
Dutch: vuist n.fem fist ASD
vuisten vb to take into hand W7
Low German: fu(u)st n.fem fist ASD
Old High German: fūst n.fem fist ASD
Middle High German: vūst n.fem fist ASD
German: Faust n.fem fist ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: pūstr n.masc a box on the ear ASD
Danish: pust n.neut a blow ASD
Swedish: pust n.masc a blow with the fist, box on the ear ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at