Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: poti-s   'host, husband, lord, master, owner'

Semantic Field(s): Husband, Master


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: impotent adj impotent W7
omnipotent adj omnipotent W7
possible adj possible W7
potent n crutch AHD/W7
power n power W7
prepotent adj prepotent W7
English: bashaw n pasha AHD
impotent adj helpless, not potent, lacking in power/vigor/strength AHD/W7
omnipotent adj almighty, with power over everything AHD/W7
pasha n man of high rank; Ottoman title of honor/distinction AHD/W7
podesta n chief magistrate in medieval Italian municipality AHD/W7
possible adj being within limits of ability/capacity/realization AHD/W7
potency n being potent/powerful W7
potent adj having flat bars across ends of (heraldic cross) arms AHD/W7
potent adj powerful, having/wielding force/influence/authority AHD/W7
potential adj/n (re:) power, ability, possibility W7
power n control/influence/authority over others AHD/W7
prepotent adj preeminent, having exceptional power/influence/authority AHD/W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: bruþfaþs n.masc bridegroom GED/W7
Latin: impotens, impotentis adj weak, impotent W7
omnipotens, omnipotentis adj/vb.ptc with power over everything W7
possibilis adj possible W7
possum, posse, potuī vb to be able/potent LRC
potens, potentis adj/vb.ptc potent, powerful LRC
potentia, potentiae n.fem power, potential LRC
poteo, potēre vb to be potent, powerful W7
potestas, potestatis n.fem power W7
potis adj potent, able, capable W7
praepotens, praepotentis adj/vb.ptc very potent/powerful W7
Portuguese: poder vb to be able/potent TLL
Spanish: poder vb to be able/potent TLL
Old French: poeir vb to be able, have power W7
Middle French: omnipotent adj omnipotent W7
possible adj possible W7
French: pouvoir vb to be able/potent TLL
Italian: podestà n.fem power; podesta W7
potere vb to be able/potent TLL
Lithuanian: pàt pcl very LRC
patì n.fem wife LRC
pàts, patì pron oneself LRC
Latvian: pat adv even LRC
pats pron himself LRC
Greek: πόσις n.masc husband LRC
πότνια adj revered, queenly LRC
Old Persian: pati- n lord, master AHD
Persian: pādshāh n bashaw AHD
Sanskrit: pati n lord, master W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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