Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pōu- : pəu- : pū̆-   'few, small, little; young (of animals)'

Semantic Field(s): Small, Little, Young, Animal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cæcepol n catchpole W7
fēa(wa) adj few ASD
fola n.masc foal, colt ASD
Middle English: cacchepol n catchpole W7
depauperat adj depauperate W7
enpoverisen vb to impoverish W7
fewe adj/pron few W7
fole n foal W7
fyly n filly W7
paucite n paucity W7
polet n pullet, young fowl W7
poure adj poor W7
poverte n poverty W7
pultrie n poultry W7
English: catchpole n sheriff's deputy AHD/W7
depauperate adj falling short in natural size/development AHD/W7
encyclopedia n work containing information re: all branches of knowledge AHD/W7
few adj/pron not many (persons/things) AHD/W7
filly n young female horse AHD/W7
foal n young animal of horse family AHD/W7
impoverish vb.trans to make poor, induce poverty AHD/W7
orthopedics n correction/prevention of skeletal deformities AHD/W7
paraffin n flammable waxy crystalline substance AHD/W7
parvovirus n infective agent with DNA in icosahedral protein shell AHD
paucity n fewness, smallness in number AHD/W7
Paul prop.n male given name; Apostle to the Gentiles (New Testament) LRC
pauper n person destitute of means AHD/W7
poco adv somewhat AHD/W7
pococurante adj careless, indifferent, apathetic AHD
poltroon n craven, spiritless coward AHD/W7
pony n small horse AHD/W7
pool n aggregate stake to which game players have contributed AHD/W7
poor adj lacking material possessions, re: poverty AHD/W7
poulard n young hen spayed for fattening AHD
poulter n poulterer CDC
poulterer n poultry seller CDC
poultry n domesticated bird(s) kept for meat/eggs AHD/W7
poverty n want, lack of money/material possessions AHD/W7
puerile adj juvenile, childish AHD/W7
puerperal adj re: parturition AHD/W7
pullet n young hen AHD/W7
putto n Renaissance artistic representation of small child AHD
Windfola prop.n Eowyn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fē adj few ASD
folla n.masc foal ASD
Frisian: fole n foal ASD
Dutch: volen, veulen n.neut foal ASD
Old Saxon: fāh adj few ASD
Low German: falen, vale n foal ASD
fege, vöge adj few ASD
Old High German: fō adj little W7
fōh adj few ASD
folo n.masc foal, young animal ASD
fuli n.neut chick, young animal ASD
Middle High German: vol(e) n.masc foal ASD
vüli, vuln n.neut foal ASD
German: fohle n.masc foal ASD
füllen n.neut foal ASD
Paraffin n.neut paraffin W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fár adj few LRC
fylja n foal W7
Icelandic: fār adj few ASD
foli n.masc foal ASD
Danish: faa adj few ASD
fole n.masc/fem foal ASD
føl n.neut foal ASD
Swedish: föl n.neut foal ASD
få adj few ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: faus, faws adj few ASD
fula n.masc foal ASD
Latin: affinis adj bordering on, related by marriage W7
parō, parāre vb to prepare, make ready; acquire, obtain W7
paro, parere vb to give birth to W7
parum adv too little LRC
parvulus, parvula, parvulum adj childhood LRC
parvus, parva, parvum adj small LRC
paucitās, paucitātis n.fem scarcity W7
paucus adj few, little W7
paulatim adv gradually LRC
paulo adv little LRC
Paulus n.masc Paul W7
pauper adj poor W7
pauperō, pauperāre vb to impoverish W7
paupertās, paupertātis n.fem poverty W7
puer, pueri n.masc boy, child LRC
puerilis adj childish, of children W7
puerpera n.fem woman in childbirth W7
pullus n.masc young chicken/animal, sprout W7
Late Latin: pullus n.masc chicken W7
Medieval Latin: depauperatus vb.ptc impoverished W7
depauperō, depauperāre vb to impoverish W7
encyclopaedia n.fem general education W7
pullanus n.masc pony W7
Portuguese: pobre adj poor, impoverished TLL
Spanish: pobre adj poor, impoverished TLL
poco adj small, little (in quantity) W7
Old French: polet n.masc poultry W7
poul n.masc cock W7
poule n.fem hen W7
poulet n.masc.dim pullet, small chicken W7
pouleterie n.fem poultry W7
pouletier n.masc poulterer W7
poverté n.fem poverty W7
povre adj poor W7
Old North French: cachepol n.masc chicken chaser W7
pol n.masc chicken W7
Middle French: empovrir vb to impoverish W7
empovriss- stem to impoverish W7
paucité n.fem paucity, being few W7
poulet n.masc.dim pullet, small chicken W7
pouleterie n.fem poultry W7
poultron adj coward W7
povre adj poor W7
French: pauvre adj poor, impoverished TLL
poulain n.masc colt W7
poule n.fem hen W7
puérile adj puerile W7
Old Italian: poltro n.masc colt W7
poltrone n.masc colt W7
Italian: pòco adv little, small W7
povero adj poor, impoverished TLL
Greek: παιδεία n.fem child-rearing AHD/LS
παιδίον n.neut young child LRC
παῖς, παιδός n.masc/fem child; slave, servant LS
Paulos n.masc Paul W7
Sanskrit: putra n son W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at