Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri-   'to like, feel friendly/well-disposed'

Semantic Field(s): Dear, Friend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: rhydd adj free RPN
Old English: frēo, frī(o) adj free; noble; joyful ASD/RPN
frēo n.masc/fem lord, master; lady, woman RPN
frēod n.fem peace, friendship, affection RPN
frēo(ga)n vb.wk to (make) free; like, love ASD/RPN
freoh, frioh, frig, frȳ adj free; noble; joyful ASD
frēo-mǣg, frēo-māg n.masc dear kinsman ASD
frēond, frīond n.masc friend; lover; relative ASD/RPN
fre(o)ðo, fri(o)ðu n.fem peace; refuge, protection, security ASD/RPN
frīgan vb to free, love RPN
frīgedæg, frigdæg n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day ASD/W7
friþ, fryþ n.masc/neut peace, freedom; refuge, protection, security ASD/CDC
Middle English: aferd(e) adj afraid MEV
affraied vb.ptc afraid W7
affraien vb to startle, frighten W7
affray n fear; affray MEV/W7
berfreid, belfray n belfry CDC
berfrey, belfry n belfry W7
free adj free W7
frend n friend W7
Friday prop.n Friday, lit. Frigg's day W7
English: affray n fray, brawl AHD/W7
affray vb.trans to frighten, startle AHD/W7
afraid adj filled with fear/apprehension AHD/W7
belfry n siege tower AHD/W2I
filibuster n irregular military adventurer AHD/W7
free adj having legal/political rights of citizen AHD/W7
freebooter n pirate, plunderer AHD/W7
Friday prop.n day between Thursday and Saturday AHD/W7
friend n person attached to another by esteem/affection AHD/W7
Frigg(a) prop.n goddess of sky/heavens (Norse mythology) AHD/W2I
Scots English: frend n relation ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fri adj free ASD
fria(ia), fraia vb to free ASD
frī(g)endei n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
friond, friund n.masc friend ASD
Frisian: frjuen n friend ASD
fry adj free ASD
Middle Dutch: bergfert, bergfrede n protecting shelter CDC
vrīdah n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
Dutch: vri(e)nd n.masc friend ASD
vrij adj free ASD
vrijbuit n plunder W7
vrijbuiter n freebooter W7
vrijdag n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
vrijen vb to woo ASD
Old Saxon: frī adj free ASD
friðu n.masc peace, love, concord, amity ASD
friohan vb to love ASD
friund n.masc friend; relation ASD
Low German: fri(j) adj free ASD
frijen vb to free; woo ASD
frund, fründ n.masc friend ASD
Old High German: frî adj free ASD
frīatag n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day W7
frido, fridu n.masc peace; shelter, protection, security ASD/CDC
friunt, frīont, friant n.masc friend ASD/W7
vrīten vb to cherish RPN
Middle High German: bercfrit, bercvrit n belfry CDC
berchfrit, berhfride n belfry CDC
fride n peace; shelter, security CDC
vrî adj free ASD
vrī(g)en vb to free ASD
vriunt n.masc friend ASD
German: befreien vb to free ASD
frei adj free ASD
freien vb to woo ASD
Freitag n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day LRC
freuen vb to be glad LRC
Freund n.masc friend ASD
Friede(n) n.masc peace; shelter, security CDC
Friedhof n cemetary TLL
friedlich adj peaceful LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: friðr n.masc peace LRC
Frigg prop.n Frigg, wife of Odin AHD
fríðr adj handsome LRC
Old Icelandic: friða vb to pacify RPN
friðill n lover RPN
fríða vb to adorn RPN
frjá vb to love RPN
frjáls n love RPN
frændi n kinsman RPN
Icelandic: frī adj free ASD
frja vb to pet ASD
frændi n.masc kinsman ASD
Danish: frende, frænde n.masc/fem cousin, kinsman ASD
fri adj free ASD
frie vb to woo; deliver ASD
Swedish: fri adj free ASD
fria vb to free, save; court ASD
frände n.masc relation ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: freidjan vb to take care of RPN
freihals n freedom RPN
freis adj free RPN
friaþwa adj showing love RPN
friaþwa n.str.fem love, charity LRC
frijei n freedom RPN
frijōn vb.wk.II to love LRC
frijondi n.fem female friend ASD
frijonds n.masc friend ASD/RPN
ga-friþōn vb to make peace between KGW
Middle Latin: ber(e)fredus, berefridus n belfry CDC
Spanish: filibustero n.masc pirate, freebooter W7
Old French: berfrai, berfray, berefreit n belfry CDC
berfroi, belefroi n belfry CDC
effrei, esfrei n affray AHD
esfaier, esfreer vb to disturb AHD
Middle French: affreer vb to startle W7
French: beffroi n belfry, watchtower, bell tower CDC
Italian: battifredo n belfry CDC
Latvian: priêks n joy RPN
Old Church Slavonic: prijaznь n love RPN
prijatelь n friend RPN
prějǫ, prijati vb to be favorable RPN
Greek: πραύς adj meek, gentle LRC
Avestan: frīnāiti vb to love, praise RPN
fryō adj dear RPN
Sanskrit: priyá-ḥ adj dear, beloved RPN
priyā n wife W2I
prīṇā́ti vb to please, be pleased RPN
prīti-ḥ n joy, pleasure RPN
prī́yate vb to be pleased RPN
premán- n love, fondness, kindness RPN
préyas- adj/n very dear; lover, dear friend RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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