Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: preg-   'greedy, covetous; willful, violent'

Semantic Field(s): to Desire, to Will, Wish, Rage, Fury


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Franca prop.n.masc Frank ASD
Franc-rīce prop.n.neut kingdom of the Franks ASD
freca n.masc hero, warrior, bold man ASD
frec(c), fræc adj bold, avid, greedy, audacious ASD/IEW
frēcne, frǣcne adj wild, daring, wicked, perilous ASD/IEW
English: France prop.n western European nation LRC
Franconian prop.n language of the Franks LRC
Frank prop.n Rhine/Weser immigrant to Gaul/Netherlands W7
Freca prop.n greedy man in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: vrec n.masc miser ASD
Old Saxon: frōkan adj wild, bold, impudent ASD
Old High German: Franko prop.n Frank W7
freh, frë(c)h adj greedy ASD/IEW
Middle High German: vrëch adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
German: Franke prop.n.masc Frank, Franconian LRC
Franken prop.n.neut Franconia IEW
Frankreich prop.n.neut France LRC
frech adj rash, impertinent ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: frakkr adj brave, plucky, courageous IEW
Icelandic: frekr adj greedy, voracious ASD
Danish: fräk adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
Swedish: fräck adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: faihu-friks adj greedy, desirous for money ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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