Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pret-, prō̆t-   'to understand'

Semantic Field(s): to Understand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: frōd adj wise, sage, prudent, experienced LRC
English: Frodo prop.n hobbit hero in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: frod adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Frisian: froed adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Dutch: vroed adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Old Saxon: frōd adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Low German: frod, vrood adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Old High German: frōt, fruot adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Middle High German: vruot adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fróðr adj wise, learned, well-informed LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: fraþjan vb.str.VI to understand LRC
frōþs adj wise, prudent ASD
Lithuanian: prõtas n.masc mind LRC
supràsti, suprañta, suprãto vb to understand LRC
Latvian: saprast, saprotu, sapratu vb to understand LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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