PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: pret-, prō̆t- 'to understand'
Semantic Field(s): to Understand
|Old English:||frōd||adj||wise, sage, prudent, experienced||LRC|
|English:||Frodo||prop.n||hobbit hero in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings||LRC|
|Old Frisian:||frod||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Frisian:||froed||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Dutch:||vroed||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Old Saxon:||frōd||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Low German:||frod, vrood||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Old High German:||frōt, fruot||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Middle High German:||vruot||adj||wise, prudent; brave; healthy||ASD|
|Old Norse:||fróðr||adj||wise, learned, well-informed||LRC|
|supràsti, suprañta, suprãto||vb||to understand||LRC|
|Latvian:||saprast, saprotu, sapratu||vb||to understand||LRC|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|