Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: preu-   'to hop, jump'

Semantic Field(s): to Jump, Leap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: frogga, fro(c)ga n.masc frog W7/ASD
Middle English: frogge n frog W7
English: frog n aquatic tailless web-footed leaping amphibian AHD/W7
Frogmorton prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
schadenfreude n malicious pleasure in others' misfortunes AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: kikvors(ch) n frog TLL
vorsch n.masc frog ASD
Low German: pogge n frog ASD
Old High German: frewida n joy AHD
frō adj happy AHD
frosc, frosk n.masc frog W7/ASD
Middle High German: vrosch n.masc frog ASD
German: Freude n.fem joy, delight, pleasure LRC
Frosch n.masc frog ASD
Schadenfreude n.fem gloating, schadenfreude LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: froskr n.masc frog ASD
Danish: frø n.masc/fem frog ASD/TLL
Swedish: frö n.neut frog ASD
Sanskrit: pravate vb to jump up W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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