Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: preus-   'to burn, freeze'

Semantic Field(s): to Burn, Scorch, Cold, Frigid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forst n.masc frost LRC
frēorig adj cold, chill, freezing LRC
frēosan, frēas, fruron, froren vb.str to freeze ASD/W7
Middle English: fresen vb to freeze W7
froren vb.past.ptc frozen W7
frost n frost W7
English: freeze, froze, frozen vb.str to solidify, become congealed into ice due to cold AHD/W7
Frery prop.n Bree calendar's January in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
frore adj frozen, frosty AHD/W7
frost n minute ice crystals AHD/W7
pruinose adj covered with whitish dust/bloom AHD/W7
prurient adj itching, craving restlessly AHD/W7
prurigo n chronic inflammatory skin disease AHD/W7
pruritus n itching AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: forst, frost n frost ASD
Frisian: froast n frost ASD
Dutch: vorst n.fem frost ASD
vriezen vb to freeze ASD
Old Saxon: frost n.masc frost ASD
Low German: fresen, freren vb to freeze ASD
Old High German: friosan, freosan, friusan vb to freeze ASD/W7
frost n frost W7
frost n.masc frost ASD
Middle High German: vriusen vb to freeze ASD
vrost n.masc frost ASD
German: frieren vb to freeze ASD
Frost n.masc frost ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: frjósa vb to freeze LRC
Icelandic: frjōsa vb to freeze ASD
frost n.neut frost ASD
Danish: frost n.masc/fem frost ASD
fryse vb to freeze ASD
Swedish: frost n.masc frost ASD
frysa vb to freeze ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *frius n.neut frost ASD/GED
Latin: pruina n.fem hoarfrost W7
pruinosus adj covered with hoarfrost W7
pruna n.fem glowing coal W7
prunia n.fem hoarfrost W7
pruriens, prurientis vb.ptc itching; being wanton W7
prurigo n.fem itch W7
prūriō, prūrīre vb to itch; be wanton W7
pruritus vb.ptc having itched W7
New Latin: prurigo n.fem chronic inflammatory skin disease W7
Sanskrit: ploṣati vb to singe W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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