Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. rēd- : rōd- : rəd-   'to gnaw, scrape, scratch'

Semantic Field(s): to Bite, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ræt n rat W7
Middle English: corroden vb to corrode W7
rape n rape W7
rascaile n (one of the) rabble W7
rasour n razor W7
rat n rat W7
English: abrade vb to erode, rub/wear away (by friction) AHD/W7
corrade vb to wear away via abrasion AHD/W7
corrode vb to eat away slowly as if by gnawing AHD/W7
erase vb to rub/scrape out (e.g. written letters) AHD/W7
erode vb to destroy/diminish by degrees AHD/W7
Morgul-rats orc guards in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
raclette n Swiss dish similar to fondue AHD/CDC
radula n horny band/ribbon of minute teeth in non-bivalve mollusks AHD/W7
rape n European herb in mustard family AHD/W7
rappee n pungent snuff made from rank tobacco leaves AHD/W7
rascal n mean/dishonest/unprincipled person AHD/W7
rash n eruption on skin AHD/W7
rasorial adj habitually scratching ground (in food search) AHD/W7
raster n screen for photo-engraving AHD/W7
rat n rodent akin to mouse AHD/W7
ratine n nubby ply (thick and thin) yarn AHD/W7
ratteen n coarse woolen fabric AHD/W7
raze vb to demolish, level to the ground AHD
razor n keen-edged knife for shaving/cutting hair AHD/W7
rodent n small gnawing mammal with chisel-shaped incisors AHD/W7
rostrum n platform for public orators AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: ratta n rat ASD
Dutch: rat n rat TLL
Old High German: rāba n rape, turnip W7
rato n.masc rat ASD
ratta n.fem rat ASD
German: Raster n.masc raster W7
Ratte n.fem rat ASD
Rübe n.fem rape IEW
North Germanic  
Icelandic: rotta n.fem rat ASD
Swedish: råtta n rat; mouse TLL
Latin: abrado, abradere vb to scrape off W7
corrado, corradere vb to scrape together W7
corrodo, corrodere vb to gnaw to pieces W7
erado, eradere vb to erase W7
erasus vb.ptc erased W7
erodo, erodere vb to eat away W7
rado, radere vb to scrape, scratch W7
radula n.fem scraper W7
rāpum n.neut rape, turnip W7
raster n.masc rake W7
rastrum n.neut rake W7
rasus vb.ptc scratched W7
rodens, rodentis adj/vb.ptc gnawing W7
rodo, rodere vb to gnaw W7
Rostra platform for speakers in Roman Forum W7
rostrum n.neut beak, prow of ship W7
Vulgar Latin: rasica n.fem rash W7
rasico, rasicāre vb to scratch W7
Late Latin: rasor n.masc scraper W7
Old French: raseor n.masc razor W7
raser vb to raze, shave W7
French: rache n.fem scurf W7
râpe n.fem grater; grape stalk W7
râpé vb.ptc grated W7
ratine n.fem type of absorbing fabric W7
ratiné adj fabric that looks like ratine W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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