Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. reg̑-   'to regulate, make just/right; king, reign'

Semantic Field(s): Right (adj), King


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: reg- vb to stretch out LRC
rī n.masc king W7/IED
Old English: bisc(e)op-rīce n.neut bishopric W7/ASD
gerecenian vb.wk to narrate W7/ASD
racu n.fem rake W7/ASD
ranc adj strong, overbearing W7
reccan vb to stretch, extend W7/ASD
rica n.masc ruler ASD
rīce n.wk.neut reign, region, kingdom LRC
riht adj right, straight, erect ASD
riht n.neut right, law, justice; plumb line W7
Middle English: adressen vb to address W7
bisshopriche n bishopric W7
correct adj correct W7
correcten vb to correct W7
corvee n corvee W7
direct adj direct W7
directen vb to direct W7
*elfriche n fairyland W7
erect adj erect W7
incorrigible adj incorrigible W7
prerogative n prerogative W7
prorogen vb to prorogue W7
rack n rack W7
raile n rail W7
rake n rake W7
rank adj rank W7
real adj real W7
realme n realm W7
rectitude n rectitude W7
regal adj regal W7
regent n regent W7
regimen n regimen W7
regiment n regiment W7
region n region W7
regne n reign W7
reguler adj regular W7
reule n rule W7
riche adj rich, precious, prosperous W7
riche n sovereign territory W7
right adj/n right W7
rogacion n rogation W7
roial adj royal W7
sours n source W7
English: abrogate vb.trans to annul, abolish by authoritative action AHD/W7
address vb to aim, direct AHD/W7
adroit adj dexterous in use of hands AHD/W7
alert adj watchful/prompt to meet danger AHD/W7
anorectic adj re: anorexia AHD
anorexia n loss of appetite AHD/W7
arrogate vb.trans to claim/seize as one's right without justification AHD/W7
bishopric n diocese, bishop's province AHD/W7
correct adj conforming to approved/conventional standard AHD/W7
correct vb.trans to amend, set/make right AHD/W7
corvee n unpaid labor due to feudal lord AHD/W7
derogate vb to disparage, cause to seem inferior AHD/W7
direct adj straight, proceeding from point to point without deviation/interruption AHD/W7
direct vb to write to someone AHD/W7
eldritch adj weird, eerie AHD/W7
erect adj vertical in position AHD/W7
ergo adv hence, therefore AHD/W7
incorrigible adj unable to be amended/corrected AHD/W7
interrogate vb.trans to question formally/systematically AHD/W7
maharani n wife of maharaja AHD/W7
porrect adj extended forward AHD/W7
prerogative n special/exclusive right/power/privilege AHD/W7
prorogue vb to defer, postpone AHD/W7
rack n framework for holding livestock fodder AHD/W7
rail n bar extending from post to post AHD/W7
raita n Indian salad/condiment: yogurt with chopped fruits/vegetables AHD
raj n reign AHD/W7
raja(h) n chief, prince W7
rake n implement with projecting prongs for gathering material AHD/W7
rani n rajah's wife, Hindu queen AHD/W7
rank adj excessively/luxuriantly vigorous in growth AHD/W7
real adj re: fixed/permanent/immovable things (e.g. land) AHD/W7
realm n kingdom AHD/W7
rectangle n parallelogram of 4 sides/right angles AHD/W7
rectilinear adj forming/moving in straight line AHD/W7
rectitude n straightness AHD/W7
recto n right-hand page AHD/W7
rector n leader, one who directs AHD/W7
rectum n terminal portion of intestine AHD/W7
rectus n straight muscle (e.g. of abdomen) AHD/W7
regal adj re: king AHD/W7
regent n ruling authority/principle AHD/W7
regicide n one who kills king AHD/W7
regime n regimen AHD/W7
regimen n systematic course of therapy AHD/W7
regiment n governmental rule AHD/W7
region n (administrative) area/district/division AHD/W7
regius adj royal, re: king AHD
reglet n flat narrow architectural molding AHD/W7
regular adj belonging to religious order AHD/W7
regulate vb.trans to direct/govern according to rule AHD/W7
Regulus prop.n brightest star in constellation Leo AHD/W7
regulus n impure metal mass formed beneath slag AHD/W7
Reich prop.n government/territory of German empire AHD
reichsmark n German mark (1925-48) W7
reign n sovereignty, royal authority AHD/W7
resurge vb to surge back, rise again AHD
rial n Persian monetary unit AHD/W7
rich adj wealthy, possessing/controlling great wealth AHD/W7
right adj correct, upright, righteous AHD/W7
right n adherence/obedience to duty/lawful authority AHD/W7
Risorgimento prop.n movement leading to political unification of Italy AHD
ri(y)al n Arabic monetary unit AHD/W7
rogation n litany, supplication AHD/W7
rogatory adj seeking/requesting/collecting information AHD/CDC
royal adj of kingly ancestry AHD/W7
rule n prescribed guide for action/conduct AHD/W7
rye n gypsy gentleman AHD/W7
sord n flock/flight of mallards AHD
source n fountainhead, origin of running water AHD/W7
subrogate vb.trans to substitute, put in place of another AHD/W7
supererogate vb to do more than required by need/duty/obligation AHD/W7
surge vb to toss, rise/fall actively AHD/W7
vicereine n wife of viceroy AHD/W7
viceroy n governor of country/province who represents king/sovereign AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rīke n reign, power, authority ASD
riucht n right, law ASD
Middle Dutch: rec n framework W7
Dutch: rijk adj rich TLL
Old Saxon: recht adj right, straight LRC
reht n right, law ASD
rekkian vb to stretch, extend ASD
rīki n reign, power, authority ASD
Old High German: reckian vb to stretch, extend ASD
rehho n rake W7
reht adj/n right, straight; right, law W7/ASD
rīhhi adj/n rich; reign, power, authority W7/ASD
ruohhen vb to take heed W7
German: Rechen n.masc rake LRC
Recht n.neut law, right LRC
rechts adj right-hand LRC
recken vb to stretch, extend LRC
Reich n.neut realm, empire LRC
reich adj rich TLL
Reichsmark n.fem reichsmark LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: reka vb to drive LRC
rekkr n.masc man, warrior LRC
réttr adj right, correct; just, fair; direct, unswerving LRC
Icelandic: rakkr adj bold, courageous ASD
rekja vb to unwind, unfold, spread out ASD
rēttr n.masc right, law; due, claim ASD
rīki n reign, power, authority ASD
Danish: rig adj rich TLL
Swedish: rik adj rich TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: raihts adj right, straight LRC
reiki n reign, power, authority ASD
reiks n king, ruler LRC
uf-rakjan vb to stretch out ASD
Latin: abrogatus vb.ptc abrogated W7
abrogo, abrogāre vb to annul, abrogate W7
angulus n.masc angle W7
arrogatus vb.ptc claimed, assumed W7
arrogo, arrogare vb to claim, assume W7
correctus vb.ptc straightened W7
corrigo, corrigere vb to correct, make straight W7
corrogatus vb.ptc collected, requisitioned W7
corrogo, corrogare vb to collect, requisition W7
derogo, derogare vb to annul (law), detract W7
directus vb.ptc directed, set straight W7
dirigo, dirigere vb to direct, set straight W7
erectus vb.ptc built up, made straight up W7
ergo conj so, thus W7
erigo, erigere vb to erect W7
interrogatus vb.ptc interrogated W7
interrogo, interrogare vb to interrogate W7
porrectus vb.ptc stretched out W7
porrigo, porrigere vb to stretch out W7
praerogativus adj voting first W7
praerogatus vb.ptc who voted first W7
praerogo, praerogare vb to request an opinion before another W7
prorogo, prorogare vb to extend an office W7
rector n.masc one who directs W7
rectus adj right W7
rectus vb.ptc directed W7
regalis adj re: king W7
regens adj/vb.ptc directing W7
regimen, regiminis n.neut rule W7
regina, reginae n.fem queen LRC
regio, regionis n.fem limit, division, direction W7
regnum, regni n.neut reign; empire, kingdom LRC
rego, regere vb to rule, direct, keep straight W7
regula n.fem rule, ruler W7
regularis adj regular, according to rule/ruler W7
regulus n.masc petty king W7
res n.fem thing, fact W7
rex, regis n.masc king LRC
rigor, rigoris n.masc rigor LRC
rogatio n.fem questioning W7
rogatus vb.ptc asked, proposed law W7
rogo, rogāre vb to ask, propose (a law) W7
subrogatus vb.ptc asked for, demanded (law) W7
subrogo, subrogare vb to ask for, demand (law) W7
surgo, surgere vb to rise W7
surrogo, surrogare vb to substitute W7
Late Latin: derogatus vb.ptc cancelled law W7
derogo, derogāre vb to annul (law), derogate W7
incorrigibilis adj incorrigible W7
realis adj real W7
rectilineus adj in a straight line W7
rectitudo n.fem rectitude W7
regimentum n.neut direction, government W7
regulatus vb.ptc regulated W7
regulo, regulāre vb to regulate W7
rogatio, rogationis n.fem act of asking W7
Medieval Latin: corrogata n.fem corvee W7
realis adj relating to things (in law) W7
rectangulus adj having a right angle W7
regens, regentis adj/vb.ptc in power, excercising kingly power W7
regulus n.masc metallic antimony W7
New Latin: anorexia n.fem anorexia W7
folio n.masc leaf of manuscript W7
recto n.masc side of page/leaf to be read first W7
rectum n.neut terminal part of intestine W7
rectus adj straight, right W7
regicida n.masc king-killer W7
regicidium n.neut king-killing W7
Regulus prop.n.masc star in constellation Leo W7
Spanish: real adj real, royal LRC
real n.masc old Spanish coin LRC
Old French: realme n.fem rule, area of ruling W7
règne n.masc reign W7
reule n.fem rule W7
sourdre vb to rise, spring forth W7
sourse n.fem source W7
Middle French: adresser vb to address W7
corvee n.fem corvee W7
prérogative n.fem prerogative, privilege W7
proroguer vb to prorogue W7
real adj relating to things (in law) W7
rectitude n.fem rectitude W7
regal adj kingly, of a king W7
regent n.masc regent, one acting as temporary king W7
regiment n.masc regiment, part of army W7
région n.fem area W7
règle n.fem rule W7
reglet n.masc ruler, straight-edge W7
reguler vb to regulate W7
reille n.fem bar; ruler W7
roi n.masc king W7
roial adj royal, re: the king W7
sors n.fem spring W7
sourdre vb to rise, surge W7
sourge- vb.stem to rise, surge W7
sourse n.fem source W7
vice-roi n.masc viceroy W7
French: adroit adj adroit, habile W7
alerte adj alert AHD
régime n.masc diet; regime, authoritarian government W7
réglet n.masc ruler, straight-edge W7
reine n.fem queen W7
vicereine n.fem vice-queen W7
Italian: Risorgimento prop.n Risorgimento AHD
Lithuanian: rę́žtis vb to stretch oneself out LRC
Latvian: ruôzîtiês vb to draw oneself out LRC
Russian: surázina n good order LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀρέγω vb to reach, extend, stretch out LRC
Greek: anorektos adj anorectic, without desire AHD
ὄρεξις n.fem desire, longing, appetite LRC
Avestan: raz- vb to arrange, straighten LRC
Sanskrit: rají- adj straight LRC
rājan n king, raja W7
rājñī n (Hindu) queen W7
rājya n raj, rule W7
rai n property W7
Hindi: mahārānī n (Hindu) king's wife, Indian princess W7
rājā n king, raja W7
rāj n raj W7
rānē n (Hindu) queen W7
Romani: rai n king W7
Tocharian B: raksau vb to stretch out LRC
Tocharian A: räk- vb to cover, spread out LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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