Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: reu-b-, and reu-g-   'to belch, eruct, retch, vomit'

Semantic Field(s): to Vomit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rēc n.masc reek ASD
Middle English: rek n reek W7
English: eruct vb to belch AHD/W7
reek n smoke AHD/W7
reek vb to emit smoke LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rēk n reek ASD
Old Dutch: rook n reek ASD
Dutch: rook n reek TLL
Old Saxon: wīh-rōk n reek ASD
Old High German: riohhan vb to reek KDW
rouh n reek ASD
German: Rauch n.masc reek, fume, vapor TLL
riechen vb to reek TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: reykr n.masc reek LRC
rjúka vb to reek, smoke; tumble, go flying LRC
Danish: røg n reek TLL
Swedish: rök n reek TLL
Latin: eructo, eructāre vb to eruct W7
ructo, ructāre vb to eruct W7
rugio, rugīre vb to roar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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