Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: reudh-   'red'

Semantic Field(s): Red


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rūad adj red LRC
Welsh: rhudd adj red LRC
Old English: rēad adj red W7
rudduc n ruddock W7
rudig adj ruddy W7
rudu adj/n.fem red; redness ASD/W7
rūst n.masc/neut rust ASD
Middle English: red adj red W7
rubrike n rubric W7
ruby n ruby W7
ruddok n ruddock W7
rudi adj ruddy W7
russet n russet W7
rust n rust W7
rutilaunt adj rutilant W7
English: bilirubin n reddish yellow pigment in bile/blood/urine/gallstones AHD/W7
corroborate vb.trans to make more certain, support with evidence/authority AHD/W7
erythema n abnormal skin redness AHD/W7
erythr(o)- pfx red AHD
rambunctious adj boisterous, disorderly AHD
red adj re: color red (long-wavelength visible light) AHD/W7
Redhorn prop.n Misty Mountains peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
redstart n small European songbird with rust-red breast/tail AHD
rissole n small pastry-enclosed minced meat/fish croquette AHD
roble n oak of Mexico/California AHD/W7
roborant n restoring vigor/strength AHD
robust adj vigorous, having/exhibiting strength/health AHD/W7
rouge n cosmetic color for lips/cheeks AHD/W7
roux n cooked mixture of flour/fat AHD/W7
rowan n Eurasian tree AHD/W7
rubella n German measles AHD/W7
rubeola n measles AHD/W7
rubescent adj reddening, turning red AHD
rubicund adj red, ruddy AHD/W7
rubidium n soft silvery metal AHD/W7
rubiginous adj re: rusty red color AHD/W7
rubric n heading in book/manuscript done/underlined in different (e.g. red) color AHD/W7
ruby n precious stone: red corundum AHD/W7
ruddock n robin AHD/W7
ruddy adj having healthy reddish color AHD/W7
rufescent adj reddish AHD/W7
rufous adj reddish AHD/W7
russet n coarse homespun reddish brown cloth AHD/W7
rust n hydrated ferric oxide: brittle reddish coating on iron AHD/W7
rutilant adj having reddish glow AHD/W7
rutile n titanium dioxide AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rād adj red ASD
Old Saxon: rōd adj red ASD
rost n rust ASD
Old High German: rost n rust ASD
rōt adj red W7
German: robust adj robust LRC
Rost n.masc rust LRC
rot adj red LRC
Rutil n rutile W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rauðr adj red LRC
reynir n rowan W7
rjóða vb to redden, make red LRC
Icelandic: rauðr adj red ASD
roði n redness ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-riudei n embarrassment LRC
rauds adj red ASD
Latin: corroboratus vb.ptc strengthened W7
corroboro, corroborāre vb to make strong W7
robiginosus adj rusty W7
rōbīgo, rōbīginis n.fem rust W7
rōbur, rōboris n.neut oak, hard wood W7
robustus adj oaken, strong W7
rubellus adj reddish W7
rubēns, rubentis adj red, ruddy, reddish W7
rubeo, rubēre vb to be red W7
ruber adj red W7
rubeus adj red, reddish W7
rubicundus adj red, rubicund W7
rubidus adj red, reddish W7
rubiginosus adj rusty W7
rubrica n.fem rubric, section W7
rufescens, rufescentis adj/vb.ptc becoming red/reddish W7
rufesco, rufescere vb to become red/reddish W7
rufus adj red, red-haired W7
ruger adj red W7
russus adj red W7
rutilans, rutilantis adj bright (red) W7
rutilo, rutilare vb to be bright/reddish W7
rutilus adj red W7
New Latin: erythema n.fem erythema W7
rubella n.fem German measles W7
rubeola n.fem measles W7
rubeolus adj reddish W7
Spanish: roble n.masc oak W7
American Spanish: roble n.masc oak W7
Old French: rous adj russet, red-haired W7
rousset adj.dim russet, red-haired W7
Middle French: rouge adj red W7
rubis n.masc ruby W7
rubrique n.fem rubric W7
French: rouge adj red W7
roux adj brownish-red, red haired W7
Lithuanian: raũdas adj red LRC
Latvian: rûsa n rust LRC
Old Church Slavonic: rudъ adj red LRC
Russian: rysyj adj red, ruddy LRC
Homeric Greek: ἐρυθρός adj red, ruddy LRC
Greek: erythainein vb to redden W7
erythēma n red blotch W7
Avestan: raoiδita- adj red, reddened LRC
Sanskrit: rṓhita- adj red, reddened LRC
Tocharian B: rätre adj red LRC
Tocharian A: rätr- adj red LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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