Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: reugh-m(e)n-   'ream, cream?'

Semantic Field(s): Butter


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rēam n.masc ream ASD/KEW
Middle English: reme n ream OED
English: ram(m)ekin, ramequin n kind of cheese pastry AHD/CDC/W7
ream n cream LRC
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: room n ream OED
Dutch: room n ream ASD
Old Flemish: rammeken n toasted bread CDC
Middle Low German: rōm(e) n ream OED
Low German: ram n ream W7
ramken n.dim (a little) ream W7
Old High German: roum n.masc ream IEW
Middle High German: roum n ream ASD
German: Rahm n.masc ream LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rjúmi, rjómi n ream KNW/OED
Icelandic: rjōmi n ream ASD
Norwegian: r(j)ome n.dial ream OED
Swedish: römme n ream SAO
French: ramequin n.masc small cheesecake W7
Persian: rōg@h%an n ghee LRC
Avestan: raog@h%na n butter LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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