Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ŕ̥k̑þo-s   'bear (animal)'

Semantic Field(s): Bear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: art n bear LRC
Breton: ors n bear LRC
Middle English: Arctour, Arture, Arthurus prop.n Arcturus AHD
artik adj arctic W7
English: arctic adj re: north, polar region AHD/W7
Arcturus prop.n Alpha Bootes: bright yellow-orange star AHD
Artemis prop.n goddess of the hunt (Greek mythology) LRC
ursine adj re: bear AHD/W7
Latin: arcticus adj arctic; re: bear W7
Arctūrus prop.n.masc Arcturus AHD
ursa n.fem she-bear W7
ursus n.masc bear W7
Late Latin: arcticus adj arctic: northern CDC
Medieval Latin: articus adj arctic AHD
Portuguese: arctico adj arctic CDC
Spanish: arctico adj arctic CDC
Old French: artique adj arctic CDC
French: arctique adj arctic CDC
Old Occitan: artic adj arctic CDC
Italian: artico adj arctic CDC
Homeric Greek: ἄρκτος n.masc/fem bear; Ursa Major LRC
Ἄρτεμις prop.n.fem Artemis LS
Greek: arktikos adj arctic; re: bear W7
Arktouros prop.n.masc Arcturus, lit. bear-watcher AHD
Hittite: hartagga- n bear LRC
Armenian: arǰ n bear LRC
Avestan: arəšō n bear LRC
Sanskrit: ŕ̥kṣaḥ n bear LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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