Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sāg-   'to seek, track, trail'

Semantic Field(s): to Pursue


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: saigid vb to seek out, approach, attack RPN
Old English: forsacan vb.str to forsake ASD/W7
sacan, sōc, sōcon, sacen vb.str to fight, contend; sue, blame, accuse ASD
sacu n.fem sake; strife, dispute; guilt, lawsuit ASD
sēc(e)an, sōhte, sōht vb.wk.I to seek, investigate ASD/RPN
sōcn n.fem inquiry, investigation ASD/RPN
Middle English: forsaken vb to forsake W7
presage n presage W7
ransaken vb to ransack W7
sake n sake W7
seken vb to seek W7
soc, soke n soke W7
English: exegesis n explanation/critical interpretation of text AHD/W7
forsake, forsook, forsaken vb.str.trans to renounce, give up AHD/W7
Forsaken prop.n inn east of Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hegemony n preponderant influence/authority AHD/W7
presage n omen, something that portends/foreshadows future event AHD/W7
ramshackle adj rickety, poorly constructed, near disintegration AHD
ransack vb.trans to search thoroughly AHD/W7
sagacious adj keen in sense perception AHD/W7
sake n end, purpose AHD/W7
seek, sought vb to look/search for, try to find AHD/OED
soke n jurisdiction over people/territory AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sake, seke n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
sēka vb to seek ASD
Old Saxon: saka n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
sakan vb to blame, rebuke ASD
sōkian vb to seek ASD
Old Low German: saca n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
suocan vb to seek ASD
Old High German: sahha n sake, suit, cause, ground, reason ASD
sahhan vb to blame, rebuke, dispute ASD
sōhni n search, inquiry ASD
suohhan, suohhen vb to seek RPN/W7
German: Sache n.fem sake, cause, object LRC
suchen vb to seek LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rannsaka vb to ransack, plunder W7
-saka vb.sfx to seek W7
sætt n.fem reconciliation LRC
sætta vb to reconcile LRC
sǫk n.fem sake, cause, reason; lawsuit, dispute LRC
sœkja vb to seek, fetch; visit; proceed LRC
Icelandic: saka vb.wk to fight, blame, accuse ASD
sókn n attack, prosecution; parish, assemblage of people ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: gasakan vb.str.VI to rebuke, reprove LRC
sakan vb to strive, rebuke ASD
sakjō n strife ASD
sōkareis n investigator, disputer RPN
sōkeins n investigation RPN
sōkjan vb to seek, desire; dispute RPN
sōkns n search, inquiry RPN
Latin: praesagio, praesagīre vb to forebode W7
praesagium n.neut omen W7
sāga n wise woman, fortune-teller RPN
sāgax, sāgacis adj keen, sagacious LRC
sāgio, sāgire vb to feel keenly, perceive quickly RPN
sāgus adj prophetic RPN
Medieval Latin: soca n.fem inquiry, jurisdiction W7
New Latin: exegesis n.fem exegesis, interpretation W7
Greek: exēgeisthai vb to explain, interpret W7
exēgēsis n.fem exegesis W7
hēgeisthai vb to lead W7
ἡγεμονεύω vb to govern LRC
hēgemonia n.fem leadership of one W7
ἡγεμών n.masc leader LRC
hēgemōn n.masc leader W7
ἡγέομαι vb.dep to lead, rule, regard LRC
hēdeisthai vb to know W7
Hittite: šagaiš n sign, omen RPN
šākiya- vb to declare, give a sign RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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