Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sak-   'to sacrifice, sanctify, make a treaty'

Semantic Field(s): Holy, Sacred, Oath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: consecraten vb to consecrate W7
sacerdotal adj sacerdotal W7
sacred adj sacred W7
sacren vb to consecrate W7
sacrifice n sacrifice W7
saint n saint W7
secresteyn n sexton W7
sexteyn n sexton W7
English: consecrate vb.trans to induct into permanent office with religious rite AHD/W7
corposant n Saint Elmo's fire AHD/W7
execrate vb.trans to put under curse AHD/W7
sacerdotal adj priestly, re: priests/priesthood AHD/W7
sacred adj holy, set apart for service/worship of deity AHD/W7
sacrifice n offering to deity W7
sacrifice vb to immolate, offer to deity W7
sacristan n sexton, one in charge of sacristy AHD
sacristy n vestry, room in church housing sacred vessels/vestments AHD
sacrosanct adj sacred, inviolable AHD/W7
saint n one officially recognized as holy/preeminent AHD/W7
sanctum n sacred place AHD/W7
sexton n church officer/employee who cares for property AHD/W7
Latin: consecratus vb.ptc consecrated, dedicated W7
consecro, consecrare vb to consecrate, dedicate W7
exsecratus vb.ptc imprecated W7
exsecror, exsecrāri vb.dep to imprecate W7
sacer adj sacred W7
sacerdos, sacerdotis n.masc priest W7
sacerdotalis adj re: priest/priesthood W7
sacio, sacire vb to make sacred W7
sacro, sacrare vb to consecrate W7
sacrosanctus adj sacrosanct W7
sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum vb to enact, make sacred LRC
sanctus, sancta, sanctum adj sacred LRC
Late Latin: sanctus, sancta, sanctum adj re: saint LRC
Medieval Latin: sacristanus n.masc sacristan W7
Portuguese: corpo-santo n.masc holy body W7
Old French: sacrer vb to make sacred W7
sacrifice n sacrifice W7
Middle French: sacerdotal adj re: priest/priesthood W7
saint adj sacred W7
secrestain n.masc sacristan W7
Hittite: sāklāis n rite W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at