Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. sal-   'sal, salt; brackish water'

Semantic Field(s): Salt, Water


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: salann n salt LRC
Old English: sealt n.neut salt ASD
sealt-ȳð n.str.fem lit. salt-wave LRC
Middle English: cylte n silt W7
salade n salad W7
salarie n salary W7
saline adj saline W7
salt n salt W7
sauce n sauce W7
sausige n sausage W7
sousen vb to souse W7
English: coleslaw n salad of raw cabbage W7
hal(o)- pfx salt AHD
sal n salt AHD
salad n raw vegetables served with dressing AHD/W7
salami n highly seasoned pork/beef sausage AHD/W7
salary n stipend, fixed compensation paid for services AHD/W7
sali- pfx salt AHD
saline adj containing/consisting of salt AHD/W7
salsa n spicy condiment sauce AHD
salt adj salty, saline, re: salt AHD/W7
salt n sodium chloride (used to season/preserve food) AHD/W7
saltcellar n small dish for holding/dispensing salt AHD
sauce n relish/condiment for food AHD/W7
sausage n highly seasoned minced meat stuffed in intestinal casings AHD/W7
silt n loose sedimentary material with tiny rock particles AHD/W7
slaw n coleslaw W7
souse vb to pickle AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: salt n salt ASD
Dutch: koolsla n coleslaw, lit. cabbage salad W7
sla n slaw, salad, lettuce TLL/W7
Old Saxon: salt n salt ASD
Old Low German: salt n salt ASD
Old High German: salz n salt W7
sulza n brine W7
sulza n salt marsh W7
German: Kopfsalat n lettuce, lit. head-salad TLL
Salz n.neut salt LRC
Sole n.fem brine LRC
Sulze, Sülze n.fem brine, aspic LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: salt n salt ASD
Danish: salat n salad, lettuce TLL
sylt n salt marsh W7
Swedish: sallad n salad, lettuce TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: salt n salt LRC
Crimean Gothic: salt n salt CGo
Latin: sāl, salis n.masc sal, brine, sea(water) W7
salarium n.neut salary, salt money, pension W7
salarius adj re: salt W7
salinus adj re: salt W7
sallo, sallere vb to salt W7
salsus adj salted W7
Late Latin: salsicia n.fem sausage W7
Portuguese: sal n salt TLL
Spanish: sal n salt TLL
Old North French: saussiche n.fem sausage W7
Middle French: salade n.fem salad W7
sauce n.fem sauce, gravy W7
French: sel n salt TLL
Old Provençal: sal n.masc salt W7
salada n.fem salad W7
salar vb to salt W7
Italian: salame n.masc salami W7
salami n.masc salami W7
salare vb to salt W7
sale n.masc salt W7
Latvian: sāls n salt LRC
Old Church Slavonic: solь n.fem salt LRC
Homeric Greek: ἅλς n.masc salt LRC
Classical Armenian: n salt LRC
Sanskrit: sal-ilá n sea LRC
Tocharian A: sāle n salt LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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