Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sal-   'gray, dirty, sallow'

Semantic Field(s): White, Light in Color, Dirty, Soiled


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: salu adj sallow, dusky W7
sealh, salig n.masc sallow, willow ASD
Middle English: sallow n sallow W7
salowe adj sallow W7
English: salicin n bitter white crystalline glucoside like salicylic acid AHD/W7
saliva n spittle LRC
sallow adj grayish/greenish yellow in color AHD/W7
sallow n selly: broad-leaved Old World willow AHD/W7
sialadenitis n salivary gland inflammation AHD
West Germanic  
Old High German: sal(a)ha n.fem sallow, willow ASD/W7
salo adj sallow, murky W7
German: Sahl-weide n sallow ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: selga n.fem sallow, willow ASD
sölr adj sallow, yellow ASD
Latin: salīva n.fem spittle, saliva ELD/W7
salix, salicis n.fem willow W7
French: salicine n.fem substance found in sap of poplars/willows W7
Greek: σίαλον n spittle, saliva ELD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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