Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: saus-, sus-   'sere, dry'

Semantic Field(s): Dry, Arid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sēar, siēre adj sere ASD/RPN
sēarian vb to sear W7
Middle English: austere adj austere W7
sere adj sere W7
seren vb to sear W7
sorelle n sorrel W7
English: austere adj stern/forbidding in manner/appearance AHD/W7
sear vb to wither away, become sere AHD/W7
sere adj dry, withered AHD/W7
sorrel n animal of sorrel color AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: sore, zoor adj sere ASD
Middle Low German: sōr adj sere RPN
Low German: soor adj sere ASD
Old High German: (ar-)sōrēn vb to sear ASD/RPN
un-saorentlih adj unseared, unwithering ASD
Latin: austerus adj harsh, severe, austere W7
Old French: austere adj austere CDC
Middle French: austère adj harsh, severe, austere W7
sor adj reddish brown W7
sorel adj brown W7
Lithuanian: saũsas adj sere, arid RPN
Old Church Slavonic: suxъ adj sere RPN
Homeric Greek: αὖος adj sere RPN
ἀυσταλέος adj sere, unkempt, unanointed LRC
Attic: αὗος adj sere LS
Greek: αὐστηρός adj harsh, severe, austere W7
Sanskrit: śoṣa-ḥ adj drying up RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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