Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl-   'Sol, sun'

Semantic Field(s): Sun


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sigel, sægl, segl n.neut Sol; (name for) S-rune ASD
sunna n.masc sun ASD
sunne n.fem sun ASD
sūð adj/adv south; southerly LRC
sūðan adv from the south ASD
sūðerne adj southern W7
sūðe-weard adj southward LRC
Sūð-Seaxan, Sūð-Seaxe Sussex, lit. South Saxons ASD
sūð-stæð n.neut south shore LRC
Middle English: Sol prop.n Sol W7
sol n sol W7
solar adj solar W7
south adj/adv south W7
southern adj southern W7
southren adj southern W7
sunne n sun W7
turnesole n turnsole W7
English: anthelion n bright white spot on parhelic circle opposite sun AHD/W7
aphelion n point in comet/planet orbit most distant from sun AHD/W7
girasol n Jerusalem artichoke AHD/W7
heliacal adj re: sun AHD/W7
helio- pfx sun AHD
heliocentric adj lit. sun-centered LRC
Helios prop.n sun god (Greek mythology) W7
helium n light colorless inert gas AHD/W7
insolate vb to expose to sun's rays AHD/W7
isohel n map/chart line depicting places with equal sunshine duration AHD/W7
parasol n lightweight umbrella used as sunshade AHD/W7
parhelion n bright colored spot on parhelic circle AHD/W7
perihelion n orbital point nearest sun's center AHD
Sol prop.n the Sun AHD/W7
sol n monetary unit AHD/W7
solanaceous adj re: nightshade plant family AHD
solanine n bitter poisonous crystalline alkaloid AHD/W7
solar adj re: sun AHD/W7
solarium n apartment exposed to sun AHD/W7
south adv/adj southward; re: the south AHD/W7
south n direction to right when facing east W7
southern adj re: region conventionally designated South AHD/W7
Southfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Southlinch prop.n Bree pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
southward adv to/toward the south
sun n luminous celestial body AHD/W7
sundew n drosera: insectivorous plant AHD
Sunlending prop.n a.k.a. Gondor in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
turnsole n plant whose stems/flowers turn with sun AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: suthern adj southern ASD
Dutch: zon n sun TLL
zuiden n south TLL
Old Saxon: sunna n.fem sun ASD
sunno n.masc sun ASD
Old Low German: sunna n.fem sun ASD
Old High German: sundan adv from the south ASD
sundrōni, sundirin adj southern ASD/W7
sunna n.fem sun ASD
sunno n.masc sun ASD
German: Sonne n.fem sun LRC
Süden n.masc south LRC
südlich adj southern LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *sowilo n Sol; (name for) S-rune LRC
Old Norse: sól n.fem Sol LRC
suðr adv southwards LRC
Icelandic: sól n.fem Sol ASD
suðrænn adj southern ASD
sunna n.fem sun ASD
sunnan adv from the south ASD
Danish: sol n sun TLL
syd n south TLL
Swedish: sol n sun TLL
söder n south TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: sauil n.neut Sol ASD
sunna n.masc sun ASD
sunnō n.wk.fem/neut sun LRC
Crimean Gothic: sune n sun CGo
Latin: insolatus vb.ptc insolated W7
insolo, insolare vb to insolate W7
sōl, sōlis n.masc the sun LRC
solanum n.neut nightshade W7
solaris adj re: sun W7
solarium n.neut sundial, terrace W7
Late Latin: heliacus adj re: sun W7
Medieval Latin: sole n.masc sun W7
New Latin: aphelion n.neut aphelion W7
helium n.neut helium W7
Spanish: sol n.masc sun W7
American Spanish: sol n.masc sun; monetary unit W7
Middle French: sol n coin: 12 deniers W7
tournesol n.masc sunflower W7
French: parasol n.masc parasol W7
Old Italian: parare vb to shield W7
parasole n.masc parasol W7
sole n.masc sun W7
tornasole n.masc sunflower, heliotrope W7
Italian: girare vb to turn W7
girasole n.fem sunflower W7
sòle n.masc sun W7
Latvian: saule n.fem sun, sunlight, sunshine LRC
Greek: anthēlios adj opposite the sun W7
Ἠέλιος n.masc Helios LRC
hēliakos adj round object W7
ἧλιος n.masc sun LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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