Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sed-   'to sit, set, settle'

Semantic Field(s): to Sit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: síde n fairy AHD
sūide n soot W7
tánaise n tanist AHD
Irish: bean-sīdhe n banshee CDC
sīd n fairy abode W2I
sīde n fairy folk W2I
sídhe n fairy AHD
tánaiste n tanist, second AHD
Gaelic: b(e)an-sīth n.fem banshee W7/CDC
sīth n fairy W2I
Old English: besettan vb to beset AHD
cot-sǣta n.masc cottager, cottage inhabitant AHD/ASD
land-sǣta n.masc colonist, one settled in a country ASD
medu-setl n.neut lit. mead-seat LRC
sadol n.masc saddle W7
sǣta n.masc dweller, resident, inhabitant AHD/ASD
se(o)tl, sedl, seðl, seatl n.neut seat, settle W7/ASD
settan, sette, seted, set(t) vb.wk to set W7
sittan, sæt, sǣton, seten vb.str to sit W7/ASD
sōt n.neut soot W7
Middle English: acceden vb to accede W7
access n access W7
ancestre, auncestre n ancestor W7/AHD
assessen vb to assess W7
as(s)ise, assize, assys n assize W7/CDC
bisetten vb to beset AHD
cesen vb to cease W7
cession n cession W7
chaiere n chair W7
cotsete n cottage dweller AHD
deces n decease W7
exceden vb to exceed W7
eyas n eyas W7
incessaunt adj incessant W7
necessarie adj necessary W7
neias n eyas W7
nest n nest W7
nocke n nock, notched end W7
nyke n nick, notch W7
pariode n period W7
possessen vb to possess W7
preceden vb to precede W7
predecessour n predecessor W7
proceden vb to proceed W7
residen vb to reside W7
sadel n saddle W7
se n see W7
session n session W7
sete n seat W7
setten vb to set W7
settle n settle W7
settlen vb to seat, bring/come to rest W7
sewer n sewer W7
sitten vb to sit W7
soil n soil W7
soot n soot W7
subsidy n subsidy W7
succeden vb to succeed W7
surcesen vb to surcease W7
sursesen vb to surcease W7
English: abscess n collection of pus in inflamed tissue AHD/W7
accede vb.intrans to approach AHD/W7
access n onset, outburst, fit of intense feeling AHD/W7
ancestor n person from whom one is descended AHD/W7
anode n positive terminal of electrolytic cell AHD/W7
antecede vb.trans to precede AHD/W7
assess vb.trans to set rate/amount (e.g. of tax) AHD/W7
assiduous adj steadily attentive AHD/W7
assize n ordinance, enactment made by legislative assembly AHD/W7
babysit, babysat vb.str.intrans to care for children W7
banshee n female spirit whose wailing warns family of approaching death (Gaelic folklore) AHD/W7
beset, beset vb.irr.trans to surround, encircle, set about with AHD/OED
cathedra n bishop's official throne AHD/W7
cathedral n church containing cathedra W7
cathode n negative terminal of electrolytic cell AHD/W7
cease vb to terminate, bring to end AHD/W7
cede vb.trans to yield/grant (typically by treaty) AHD/W7
cession n concession, yielding to another AHD/W7
chair n seat (for one person) with four legs and back AHD/W7
concede vb to grant as right/privilege AHD/W7
cosset n pet (lamb) AHD
cosset vb to pamper AHD
decease n death, departure from life AHD/W7
dissident adj disaffected, differing with group/opinion AHD/W7
edaphic adj re: soil AHD/W7
ephedrine n crystalline alkaloid extracted from plants AHD/W7
episode n unit of action in dramatic/literary work AHD/W7
ersatz adj synthetic, substitute AHD/W7
exceed vb to extend outside AHD/W7
eyas n unfledged bird, nestling hawk AHD/W7
-hedron n.sfx crystal/geometric figure having (specified) form/number of surfaces AHD/W7
icosahedron n polyhedron with 20 faces AHD/W7
incessant adj unceasing, continuing/following without interruption AHD/W7
insessorial adj re: perching AHD/W7
insidious adj treacherous, awaiting chance to entrap AHD/W7
intercede vb.intrans to mediate, act with view to reconciling differences between parties AHD/W7
isopiestic adj isobaric, re: equal pressure AHD/W7
method n process/procedure for accomplishing something AHD/W7
necessary adj inescapable, of inevitable nature AHD/W7
nest n bed/receptacle prepared by bird for eggs/young AHD/W7
nest vb to build/occupy a nest W7
niche n recess in wall (esp. for statue) AHD/W7
nick n slit, notch AHD/W7
nide n nest/brood of pheasants AHD
nidicolous adj reared in nest AHD/W7
nidifugous adj leaving nest soon after hatching AHD/W7
nidify vb to build a nest AHD
nidus n nest/breeding place AHD/W7
obsess vb.trans to beset, harass AHD/W7
octahedron n solid with 8 plane faces W7
-ode n.sfx way, path AHD
odograph n instrument for recording course/distance traveled AHD
odometer n instrument for measuring distance traversed AHD/W7
period n sentence, utterance from full stop to stop AHD/W7
physostomous adj with connecting tube between air bladder and alimentary canal AHD
piezo- pfx pressure AHD/W7
possess vb.trans to own/have as property AHD/W7
precede vb to surpass in rank/dignity/importance AHD/W7
predecessor n one that precedes AHD/W7
preside vb.intrans to occupy place/position of authority AHD/W7
proceed vb.intrans to issue, come forth from source AHD/W7
proctodeum n inward fold on embryonic ectoderm that develops into anal passage AHD
recede vb.intrans to withdraw, move back/away AHD/W7
reside vb.intrans to be incumbent in office/benefice AHD/W7
retrocede vb.intrans to recede, go back AHD/W7
saddle n padded/leather-covered seat for (horseback) rider AHD/W7
seance n sitting, session AHD/W7
seat n chair, sitting place AHD/W7
secede vb.intrans to withdraw from communion/organization AHD/W7
sedate adj unruffled, keeping quiet steady pace/attitude AHD/W7
sedentary adj settled, not migratory AHD/W7
sederunt n prolonged sitting (e.g. for discussion) AHD/W7
sedile, sedilia n seat for clergy near chancel AHD/CDC
sediment n dregs, matter settled to bottom of liquid AHD/W7
see n cathedra AHD/W7
sessile adj attached directly by base (not raised on stalk/peduncle) AHD/W7
session n meeting(s) of group for transaction of business AHD/W7
set, set vb.irr to put, place, cause to sit AHD/W7
settle n wooden bench with arms/high solid back/enclosed foundation AHD/W7
settle vb to put/fix so as to stay AHD/W7
settlement n act/process of settling IEW/W7
sewer n medieval household table officer AHD/W7
shee, sidhe n fairy fort/abode W2I
siege n.obs throne, seat of distinction AHD/W7
sit, sat vb.str to rest upon buttocks/haunches AHD/W7
sitz adj/n seated; sitting AHD
sitzmark n depression left in snow by skier falling backward AHD/W7
soil n earth, firm land AHD/W7
soot n black ash/powder formed by combustion AHD/W7
stomodaeum n anterior ectodermal part of alimentary tract/canal AHD/W7
subside vb.intrans to settle, sink/fall to bottom AHD/W7
subsidy n gift/grant of money AHD/W7
succeed vb to come after another in (possession of) estate AHD/W7
supersede vb.trans to defer, postpone, omit, discontinue AHD/W7
surcease vb to desist from action AHD/W7
synizesis n uniting (in pronunciation) adjacent vowels to form one syllable AHD/W7
synod n council AHD/W7
tanist n ancient Celtic chief or elected heir apparent AHD/CDC
tetrahedron n polyhedron of four faces AHD/W7
trisoctahedron n regular solid with 24 congruent faces AHD/W7
Upanishad prop.n collection of Vedic religious/philosophical texts (Hinduism) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sedel n seat, settle ASD
setta vb to set ASD
sibbe adj related ASD
sitta vb to sit ASD
Dutch: kathedraal n cathedral TLL
Old Saxon: sedel n seat, settle ASD
settian vb to set ASD
sittian vb to sit ASD
Old Low German: land-sētio n colonist, one settled in a country ASD
Old High German: nest n nest W7
satal, satul n.masc saddle ASD/W7
sed(h)al, sethal n throne, residence ASD
sezzal n seat W7
sezzan, sezzen vb to set ASD/W7
sizzan, sizzen vb to sit ASD/W7
German: Ersatz n.masc substitute, replacement W7
Kathedrale n cathedral TLL
Nest n.neut nest LRC
Sattel n.masc saddle LRC
setzen vb to set LRC
Sitz n.masc seat LRC
sitzen vb to sit W7
Sitzmarke n.fem sitzmark, lit. sitting-mark W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: set n.neut seat; raised floor along sides of hall LRC
setja vb to set, seat LRC
sæti n seat W7
Icelandic: setja vb to set ASD
sitja vb to sit ASD
sót n.neut soot ASD
söðull n.masc saddle ASD
Danish: katedral n cathedral TLL
Swedish: besättning n crew TLL
katedral n cathedral TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: satjan vb to set ASD
sitan vb.str.V to sit LRC
sitls n.masc seat, throne, nest ASD
un-sibis adj impious ASD
Latin: abscēdo, abscedere vb to go away W7
abscessus n.masc act of going away W7
abscessus vb.ptc gone away W7
accedo, accedere vb to approach, go to, be added W7
accessus n.masc approach W7
accessus vb.ptc approached W7
antecedo, antecedere vb to go before W7
antecessor n.masc one that goes before W7
antecessus vb.ptc one who came before W7
assideō, assidēre vb to sit by/near, assist in office of judge W7
assīdō, assīdere vb to sit down, take a seat W7
assiduus adj continuous W7
cathedra n.fem seat, local seat of the Church W7
cēdō, cedere, cessī, cessum vb to go, cede, depart, withdraw LRC
cessans, cessantis vb.ptc stopping W7
cessio, cessionis n.fem giving up W7
cesso, cessare vb to stop, delay W7
cessus vb.ptc given up W7
cis prep on this side W7
concedo, concedere vb to yield, concede W7
decedo, decedere vb to die, depart, withdraw W7
decessor n.masc retiring governor W7
decessus n.masc death, departure W7
dissidens, dissidentis adj/vb.ptc sitting apart, disagreeing W7
dissideo, dissidēre vb to sit apart, disagree W7
ephedra n.fem a (nearly leafless) desert shrub W7
excedo, excedere vb to go out W7
insessus vb.ptc seated on W7
insideo, insidēre vb to sit on W7
insidiae plot, ambush W7
insidiosus adj plotting W7
intercedo, intercedere vb to go between W7
methodus n.masc method W7
necessarius adj necessary, closely connected W7
necesse adj requisite, necessary, unavoidable W7
nīdus n.masc nest W7
obsessus vb.ptc to be obsessed W7
obsido, obsidēre vb to obsess, besiege W7
periodus n.fem rhetorical period W7
possessio, possessionis n.fem possession LRC
possessus vb.ptc possessed W7
possideo, possidēre vb to possess W7
praecedo, praecedere vb to precede W7
praesideo, praesidēre vb to guard, preside over, lit. sit in front of W7
prōcēdō, procedere, processī, processum vb to proceed, advance, go forward LRC
recēdō, rēcedere, rēcessī, rēcessum vb to recede, retire LRC
resideo, residēre vb to reside, remain W7
retrocedo, retrocedere vb to give back W7
secedo, secedere vb to secede, separate W7
sedatus vb.ptc calmed, sedate W7
sedens, sedentis adj sitting W7
sedentarius adj sedentary W7
sedeō, sedēre vb to sit W7
sedes, sedis n.fem seat, habitation LRC
sedīle, sedīlis n.neut seat, bench, sedile W7/CLD
sedimentum n.neut settling, sediment W7
sēdō, sēdāre vb to lay, calm, settle W7
sella n.fem seat, chair, saddle W7
sessilis adj low, re: sitting, dwarf (of plants) W7
sessio, sessionis stem act/period of sitting W7
sessus vb.ptc sat W7
sīdo, sīdere vb to sink, settle, sit down W7
solium n.neut seat W7
subsidium n.neut help, reserves W7
subsido, subsidere vb to squat, bow down W7
succēdō, succedere, successī, sucessum vb to enter, succeed, follow after LRC
supersedeō, supersedēre vb to sit on, refrain from, be superior to W7
Vulgar Latin: assedo, assedēre vb to sit beside W7
nidax n.masc nestling W7
nidico, nidicāre vb to nest W7
Late Latin: incessans, incessantis adj incessant, non-stop W7
praedecessor n.masc predecessor, one who comes before W7
synodus n.masc synod, meeting, assembly W7
Middle Latin: assessare vb to assess, impose tax CDC
Medieval Latin: assessus vb.ptc assessed W7
assideō, assidēre vb to assess W7
periodus n.fem period of time; punctuation mark W7
retrocedo, retrocedere vb to retrocede, give again W7
New Latin: Ephedra prop.n.fem (genus of) shrub W7
-hedron n.sfx side, face W7
nidus n.masc nest, breeding place W7
stomodaeum n.neut anterior ectodermal part of alimentary canal/tract W7
tetrahedron n.neut polyhedron with four faces W7
Old French: acces n access, arrival AHD
ancestre n.masc ancestor W7
asseoir vb to seat W7
assesser vb to assess CDC
as(s)ise n.fem assize, session, assessment, settlement W7/CDC
auncestre n ancestor AHD
cesser vb to stop W7
chaiere vb to sit W7
Anglo-French: asseour n.masc seater W7
soil n.masc seat W7
Middle French: acces n.masc arrival W7
cession n.fem action of yielding/giving up W7
deces n.masc decease W7
exceder vb to exceed W7
methode n.fem method W7
niais adj fresh from the nest; stupid W7
niche n.fem nest, cavity W7
nicher vb to nest W7
periode n.fem period W7
possesser vb to possess W7
précéder vb to precede, come before W7
prédecessur n.masc predecessor W7
procéder vb to proceed W7
résider vb to dwell, reside W7
sédentaire adj sedentary W7
sédiment n.masc sediment W7
session n.fem session, assembly, period of work W7
superséder vb to refrain from W7
surseoir vb to allow delay W7
sursis vb.ptc allowed delay W7
French: asseoir vb to seat oneself W7
céder vb to yield W7
concéder vb to concede W7
niche n.fem nest, cavity W7
nid n nest TLL
odomètre n.masc odometer W7
rétrocéder vb to retrocede, give back W7
séance n.fem period of sitting for a meeting W7
seoir vb to sit, fit, be suitable W7
Lithuanian: sėdėti, sėdi, sėdėjo vb to sit LRC
Old Church Slavonic: sěděti, sěždǫ, sědiši vb to sit, remain LRC
sěsti, sědǫ, sědeši vb to sit down LRC
xoditi, xoždǫ, xodiši vb to go, walk LRC
Albanian: sukses n.masc success LRC
Greek: anodos n.masc way up W7
edaphos n.neut ground, bottom W7
hedra n.fem seat W7
-edron afx side W7
hezesthai vb to sit W7
eikosaedron n.neut icosahedron W7
eisodios adj coming in W7
ἐνέδρα n.fem ambush LRC
epeisodios adj coming in besides W7
ἔσοδος n.fem entrance LRC
Ephedra prop.n.fem Ephedra W7
ephedros adj sitting upon W7
hizein vb to set down W7
kathedra n.fem seat, local seat of the Church W7
kathodos n.fem way down W7
μέθ-οδος n.fem method, pursuit, scientific inquiry LS
hodaios adj being on the way W7
hodometron n.neut odometer W7
ὁδός n.fem way, road LRC
periodos n.masc circuit, period of time, rhetorical period W7
piezein vb to press W7
piestos adj compressible W7
synizein vb to blend, collapse, sit down together W7
synizēsis n.fem blending of adjacent vowels in prosody W7
synodos n.masc meeting, assembly W7
Late Greek: synodos n.masc synod W7
tetraedron n.neut tetrahedron W7
tetraedros adj having four faces W7
Classical Armenian: nstim vb to sit LRC
Sanskrit: upaniṣad n Upanishad W7
pīḍayati vb to squeeze W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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