Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: se-   'self, one's own'

Semantic Field(s): to Own, Possess


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gelīc adj like W7
god-sibb n.masc sponsor W7
se(o)lf, silf, sylf pron.refl self, same ASD
sibb adj/n related; kinship, kinsman W7
swā adv so, thus LRC
swān n swain: boy, herdsman W7
swilc adj/pron such LRC
swilce adv thus, likewise, such (manner) LRC
Middle English: bootswein n boatswain W7
consuetude n consuetude W7
custume n customer W7
desolat adj desolate W7
ethik n ethic W7
ethnic adj ethnic W7
gossib n gossip W7
mansuetude n mansuetude W7
mastif n mastiff W7
sib adj/n sib W7
so adv so W7
sobre adj sober W7
solain adj sullen, solitary, W7
sole adj sole W7
solitary adj solitary W7
solitude n solitude W7
such adj such W7
swein n swain: boy, servant W7
English: boatswain n petty officer on ship AHD/W7
cacoethes n mania, insatiable desire AHD/W7
consuetude n custom, social usage AHD/W7
custom n common usage/practice AHD/W7
desolate adj deserted, devoid of visitors/inhabitants AHD/W7
desuetude n disuse, discontinuance from use/exercise AHD/W7
ethic n discipline re: what is good vs. bad AHD/W7
ethnic adj heathen, neither Christian nor Jewish AHD/W7
ethno- pfx race, people, cultural group AHD/W7
ethos n distinguishing tone/character/guiding beliefs AHD/W7
gossip n godparent AHD/W7
hetaera n highly cultivated Greek courtesan AHD/W7
idio- pfx distinct, personal, separate, one's own AHD/W7
idiom n dialect, language peculiar to class/people/district/community AHD/W7
idiopathic adj peculiar to individual W7
idiopathy n idiopathic disease/anomaly AHD/W7
idiot n person afflicted with idiocy AHD/W7
khedive n Turkish viceroy in Egypt AHD
Khotanese prop.n ancient language of Xinjiang AHD
mansuetude n tameness, meekness, gentleness AHD/W7
mastiff n (very large type of) dog AHD/W7
nisi adj taking effect at specified time unless voided/modified AHD/W7
quasi adv seemingly, in some sense/degree AHD/W7
seduce vb to persuade to disobey AHD/W7
seduction n seducing to wrong AHD/W7
self pron.inten/refl person, individual AHD/W7
sib adj akin, related by blood AHD/W7
sic adv intentionally so written AHD/W7
so adv in way/manner suggested/indicated AHD/W7
sober adj abstemious, sparing in use of food/drink AHD/W7
sodality n brotherhood, community AHD/W7
sole adj only, solitary AHD/W7
solipsism n theory holding that only self exists AHD/W7
solitary adj being/living/going alone/without companions AHD/W7
solitude n seclusion, being alone/remote from society AHD/W7
solo n musical composition for single voice/instrument AHD/W7
such adj/pron (re:) kind/character suggested/indicated AHD/W7
suicide n act/instance of killing oneself AHD/W7
sullen adj gloomily/resentfully silent/repressed AHD/W7
swain n peasant, rustic AHD/W7
swami n Hindu ascetic/religious teacher AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sā adv so, as, thus ASD
self pron self, very own ASD
se-līk pron such ASD
selk pron such ASD
suck pron such ASD
sulch pron such ASD
sulk pron such ASD
Dutch: als conj when TLL
zijn his, its TLL
zoo conj as TLL
zoodat conj so that TLL
Old Saxon: self pron self, very own ASD
sō adv so, as, thus ASD
su-līk pron such ASD
Old High German: selb, selp pron.inten self ASD/W7
sīn pron.poss his W7
sippa n kinship, family W7
sō adv so W7
solh pron such ASD
so-līh pron such ASD
su-līh adj/pron such ASD/W7
German: als conj than, when TLL
sein pron.poss his LRC
selber pron.inten self LRC
Sippe n.fem kinship, family LRC
so adv so LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sik pron.refl him-/her-/it-self; them-selves LRC
sjálfr adj self; him-/her-/it-self; themselves LRC
slíkr adj such LRC
svá adv so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if LRC
sveinn n boy, servant W7
Icelandic: sjálfr pron self, very own ASD
slíkr pron such ASD
svá, svó adv so, as, thus ASD
Danish: saa adv so, as, thus ASD
Swedish: så adv so, as, thus ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *seins poss.adj one's own LRC
silba pron.refl self LRC
swa adv so, as, thus LRC
swa-leiks adj/pron such ASD
swaswē conj as, just as; so as; so as to, so that LRC
swē conj like, as, just as; so that; about LRC
Latin: consuesco, consuescere vb to accustom W7
consuetudo n.fem custom, mores W7
consuetus vb.ptc used to W7
desolatus vb.ptc abandoned W7
desolo, desolāre vb to abandon W7
desuesco, desuescere vb to become unaccustomed W7
desuetudo n.fem obsoleteness W7
desuetus vb.ptc obsolete W7
idiota n.masc ignorant person W7
ipse, ipsa, ipsum pron himself, herself, itself W7
mansuesco, mansuescere vb to tame W7
mansuetudo n.fem mansuetude W7
mansuetus adj tame, mild W7
nisi conj unless, if not W7
quasi adv almost W7
se- pfx apart W7
se pron.acc/abl oneself W7
sed conj but W7
sī conj if LRC
sīc adv so, thus LRC
sobrius adj sober W7
sodalis n.masc comrade W7
sodalitas, sodalitatis n.fem comradeship, club W7
solea n.fem sandal; flatfish W7
sōleō, solēre, solitum vb to be accustomed LRC
solitarius adj alone, solitary W7
solitas n.fem aloneness W7
sōlitūdō, sōlitūdinis n.fem solitude W7
solitus, solita, solitum adj usual, accustomed LRC
solus, sola, solum adj alone LRC
suesco, suescere vb to accustom, become accustomed W7
sui pron.refl.gen of oneself W7
suus, sua, suum pron/adj.poss one's own LRC
Vulgar Latin: mansuetinus adj tame W7
Late Latin: ethnicus adj ethnic W7
idioma n.neut individual peculiarity of language W7
New Latin: ethos n.masc habits of living W7
Portuguese: se conj if, whether TLL
Spanish: si conj if, whether TLL
sino conj but TLL
Old French: custume n.fem custom W7
se pron.refl oneself W7
Middle French: ethique n.fem ethic W7
idiome n.masc idiom, language W7
mastin n.masc mastiff W7
sobre adj sober, simple W7
solain adj sullen W7
sole n.fem flatfish W7
solitude n.fem solitude, loneliness W7
French: désuétude n.fem obsoleteness W7
ethno- pfx ethno- W7
si conj if, whether TLL
Italian: così conj as TLL
se conj if, whether TLL
solo adj alone, single W7
Lithuanian: savę̃s pron.refl oneself, itself LRC
Latvian: sava pron his, one's LRC
savs pron his LRC
Old Church Slavonic: svoi, svoe, svoja adj own, one's own LRC
sebe pron.refl self LRC
Homeric Greek: ἑταῖρος n.masc comrade, companion LRC
ἕταρος n.masc comrade, companion LRC
Greek: ethnikos adj ethnic, gentile, national W7
ethnos n.neut tribe, nation W7
ἕκαστος adj/pron.indef each, every LRC
ἐός adj his, her LRC
hetaira n.fem female companion, prostitute W7
hetairos n.masc companion W7
ēthikē n.fem ethic W7
ēthikos adj ethical, re: character W7
ἦθος n.neut ethos, custom LRC
ἰδίᾳ adv privately LRC
ἰδίαν adv alone LRC
idiopatheia adj idiopathy, particular affection W7
ἴδιος adj own, private, particular LRC
idiousthai vb to appropriate W7
idiōma n.neut idiom W7
idiōtēs n.masc idiot, layman, ignorant person W7
kakoēthēs adj malignant W7
ὅταν conj when, every time LRC
ὅτε conj when LRC
ὅτι conj that, because LRC
ὅτος pron someone LRC
σφεῖς pron.refl they LRC
σφέτερος adj own LRC
σφωε pron those two LRC
hōs adv so, thus W7
ὥστε adv/conj like, so that LRC
Classical Armenian: inkʿnin pron.emph he himself, he personally, the very one LRC
iwr pron.refl himself, herself, itself LRC
Sanskrit: sva adj one's own, one's self W7
svāmin n lord, owner W7
Hindi: svāmī n swami W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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