Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: seg̑h-, seg̑hi-, seg̑hu-   'to possess, hold fast, persevere, overcome; victory'

Semantic Field(s): to Own, Possess, to Hold, Victory


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scōl n.fem school W7
scolere n.masc scholar W7
sige, sigor n.masc triumph, victory ASD
Middle English: etyk adj hectic W7
eunuk n eunuch W7
perseveren vb to persevere W7
scole n school W7
scoler n scholar W7
English: asseverate vb.trans to aver/affirm earnestly/positively AHD/W7
asthenia n debility, lack/loss of strength AHD/W7
cachexia n general physical wasting/malnutrition AHD/W7
calisthenics n systematic bodily exercises AHD/W7
cathexis n investment of sexual energy in person/object/idea AHD/W7
epoch n date/time selected as point of reference AHD/W7
eunuch n castrated male in charge of harem AHD/W7
hectic adj re: fluctuating but persistent fever AHD/W7
Hector prop.n bravest Trojan (Homer's Iliad) AHD/W7
hector n bully AHD
hypersthene n orthorhombic pyroxene AHD/W7
myasthenia n abnormal muscular fatigue/weakness AHD
Ophiuchus prop.n equatorial constellation, lit. snake-holder AHD/CDC
persevere vb.intrans to persist in state/enterprise/undertaking AHD/W7
scheme n mathematical/astronomical diagram AHD/W7
scholar n pupil, one who attends school/studies under teacher AHD/W7
scholastic adj re: Scholasticism (medieval/renaissance Christian philosophical movement) AHD/W7
scholastic n Scholastic philosopher AHD/W7
scholium n marginal comment/annotation (on classic text) AHD/W7
school n place/establishment for instruction AHD/OED
severe adj strict in judgment/discipline/government AHD/W7
sthenia n vigor, vitality, bodily strength AHD
thrombosthenin n contractile clot-forming protein in platelets AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: school n school TLL
Old Saxon: sigi n triumph, victory ASD
Old High German: scuola n school ASD
scuolari n scholar ASD
sigi, sigu n triumph, victory RPN
sigirōn vb to conquer RPN
German: Schule n.fem school TLL
Sieg n.masc triumph, victory LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: sigr n triumph, victory RPN
Icelandic: sig(r) n triumph, victory ASD
skóli n school ASD
Danish: skole n school TLL
Swedish: skola n school TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: sigis n triumph, victory RPN
Latin: assevero, asseverāre vb to asseverate W7
eunuchus n.masc eunuch W7
Hector n.masc Hector W7
persevero, perseverāre vb to persevere W7
schola n.fem school W7
scholasticus adj re: school/scholars W7
severus adj severe, assertive W7
Late Latin: cachexia n.fem bad condition, chronic disease W7
hecticus adj habitual W7
scholaris adj re: school W7
Medieval Latin: epocha n.fem epoch, era W7
New Latin: asthenia n asthenia AHD
scholasticus n.masc student in scholasticate W7
scholium n.neut scholium, note between manuscript lines W7
sthenia n sthenia AHD
Spanish: escuela n school TLL
Old French: escoler n.masc scholar, student W7
Middle French: étique adj consumptive W7
persévérer vb to persevere W7
sévère adj severe W7
French: école n school TLL
hypersthènie n.fem hypersthene, exaggerated function of certain tissues/organs R1/W7
Homeric Greek: Ἕκτωρ prop.n.masc Hector LRC
ἐπέχω vb to pause, hold back LRC
εὐνή n.fem bed, couch, place to lie LRC
κᾱλός adj fair, beautiful LRC
σθένος n.neut strength, sthenia LRC
Greek: astheneia n.fem weakness W7
asthenēs adj weak W7
εἴχω vb to have, be LRC
hektikos adj habitual, consumptive W7
hexis n.fem condition W7
epochē n.fem cessation, fixed point W7
eunouchos n.masc eunuch W7
ἐχυρός adj strong, secure LRC
ἔχω vb to have, hold LRC
ἰσχύω vb to be strong LRC
ἴσχω vb to stay, restrain LRC
kathexis n.fem holding W7
katechein vb to hold fast, occupy W7
kachexia n.fem bad condition, chronic disease W7
παρέχω vb to provide LRC
schēma n.neut figure, arrangement W7
scholazein vb to keep a school W7
scholastikos adj re: school W7
σχολή n.fem leisure; school, lecture, discussion LRC
scholion n.neut comment, scholium W7
Avestan: hazah- n power, victory RPN
Sanskrit: sáhate vb to conquer, prevail, overcome RPN
sáhas- n strength, power, victory RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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