Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sei-, soi-   'to drip, be damp'

Semantic Field(s): Rain (n), Wet, Damp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: hufen n cream LRC
English: -(a)emia n.sfx disease/condition re: blood AHD/W7
anemia n blood deficient in volume/hemoglobin/red blood cells AHD/W7
hematic adj re: blood AHD
hematite n iron ore, reddish mineral AHD
hemat(o)- pfx blood AHD
hem(o)- pfx blood AHD
hemorrhage n blood leakage from vein/artery AHD/W7
hemostatic adj re: stopping bleeding W7
ischemia n tissue anemia due to arterial blood obstruction AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: honingzeem n virgin honey LRC
Old Saxon: sêm n thick liquid; nectar of flowers KSW
Low German: seem n thick flowing liquid SAO
Old High German: seim n thick liquid; flower nectar KDW
seim-honag n flower nectar LRC
wazzar-seim n crowfoot (plant whose leaves yield toxic/medicinal oil) KDW
German: Seim n thick liquid flow/excess (e.g. honey, barley-water) LRC
seimen vb.arch to press/strain/separate with thick liquid as product (e.g. honey from wax) SAO
Seimhonig, Honigseim n.arch virgin honey LRC
seimig adj thick, ropy, viscid LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hunangs-seimr n virgin honey LRC
seimr n honeycomb; virgin honey KNW
Danish: sime vb.dial to drip, drop (of honey)
Swedish: simma vb.trans to skim (milk); press/strain/separate with thick liquid as product SAO
simmig adj thick, viscid, cloudy SAO
Gutnish: saima vb.refl to become thick (liquid) SAO
Latin: haemorrhagia n.fem hemorrhage W7
New Latin: -(a)emia sfx disease/condition re: blood W7
anemia n.fem anemia, bloodlessness W7
French: hémorrhagie n.fem hemorrhage W7
Homeric Greek: ἇιμα n.neut blood, carnage, bloodshed LRC
Greek: haimorrhagia n.fem hemorrhage W7
anaimia n.fem anemia, bloodlessness W7
ischaimos adj hemostatic, holding blood W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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