Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: seip-, seib-   'to sift, pour out'

Semantic Field(s): to Pour


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sāpe n.fem soap, salve ASD
sife n.neut sieve ASD
sifeþa, seofoþa n.masc/ siftings ASD
siftan vb.wk to sift ASD/W7
sipian, sypian vb to seep, take in moisture ASD
Middle English: siften vb to sift W7
sipen vb to seep W7
sive n sieve W7
sope n soap W7
English: saponaceous adj soapy, re: soap AHD/W7
saponated adj treated/combined with soap AHD/W7
saponin n plant glucosides producing soapy lather AHD/W7
saponite n hydrous magnesium aluminum silicate AHD/W7
seep vb.intrans to ooze, flow/pass slowly through pores/small openings AHD/W7
sieve n device with mesh/perforations through which liquids/fine particles pass AHD/W7
sift vb to pass through a sieve AHD/W7
sipe vb.intrans to seep AHD/W7
soap n cleansing/emulsifying agent made from alkali and fat/fatty acids AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: zeep n soap TLL
Middle Low German: sipen vb to seep W7
Old High German: seifa n soap ASD
sib n.neut sieve ASD
German: Seife n.fem soap LRC
Sieb n.neut sieve LRC
sieben vb to sieve LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: sæbe n soap TLL
Swedish: saponit n saponite W7
Latin: sāpo, sapōnis n.masc soap W7
sebum n.neut tallow W7
New Latin: saponaceus adj soapy W7
French: saponine n.fem saponin W7
Italian: saponata n.fem lather, soapsuds LRC
sapone n.masc soap LRC
Serbo-Croatian: sípiti vb to drizzle W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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