Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. sek-   'to segue, follow'

Semantic Field(s): to Follow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: secg n.masc man; hero, warrior LRC
sele-secg n.masc retainer, lit. hall-hero LRC
Middle English: as(s)ignen vb to assign CDC/W7
associaten vb to associate AHD
ensuen vb to ensue W7
executen vb to execute W7
obsequious adj obsequious W7
prosecuten vb to prosecute W7
pursuen vb to pursue W7
resignen vb to resign W7
scarlat n scarlet W7
scarlet n scarlet W7
second num.ord second (2nd) W7
secte n sect W7
secundine n secundines W7
seel n seal W7
sequence n sequence W7
sequestren vb to sequester W7
signe n sign W7
signen vb to sign W7
siute n suite, sequence, act of following W7
subsequent adj subsequent W7
suen vb to sue W7
suitor n suitor W7
English: assign vb.trans to transfer (some property) to another AHD/W7
associate vb to join as friend/partner/companion AHD/W7
consequent adj following as effect/result AHD/W7
consign vb to entrust, transfer to another's care AHD/W7
consociate vb to bring into association AHD/W7
designate adj chosen (but not yet installed) for office AHD/W7
dissociate vb to disconnect, separate from union/association with another AHD/W7
ensue vb.intrans to take place afterward/as result AHD/W7
execute vb.trans to perform, carry out, put into effect AHD/W7
extrinsic adj extraneous, not belonging to/forming part of thing AHD/W7
insignia n emblem, badge of honor/authority AHD/W7
intrinsic adj part of essential nature/constitution of thing AHD/W7
obsequious adj sycophantic, exhibiting servile complaisance/attentiveness AHD/W7
persecute vb.trans to harass with intent to grieve/injure/afflict AHD/W7
prosecute vb to follow to end AHD/W7
pursue vb to follow with intent to overtake/defeat/capture/kill AHD/W7
resign vb to give up deliberately AHD/W7
scarlatina n scarlet fever AHD/W7
scarlet adj re: bright red coloring W7
scarlet n scarlet cloth/clothes AHD/W7
seal n assurance, guarantee, something that confirms/ratifies/makes secure AHD/W7
second num.ord 2nd, next after 1st AHD/W7
secondo n second part AHD/W7
sect n dissenting/schismatic religious body AHD/W7
secund adj unilateral, having some part/element on one side only AHD/W7
secundines afterbirth AHD/W7
segno n notational sign AHD/W7
segue vb to proceed to next part without pause AHD/W7
seguidilla n lively Spanish dance AHD/CDC
sequacious adj tractable, subservient AHD/W7
sequence n hymn of irregular meter between gradual and Gospel AHD/W7
sequester vb.trans to segregate, set apart AHD/W7
sequestrum n dead bone fragment detached from adjoining bone AHD/W7
sigil n seal, signet AHD/W7
sign n motion/gesture by which wish/thought/command is expressed/made known AHD/W7
sign vb to place sign upon, represent/indicate via sign AHD/W7
sociable adj social, inclined to companionship with others AHD/W7
social adj involving allies/confederates AHD/W7
society n company, companionship/association with fellows, friendly/intimate intercourse AHD/W7
socio- pfx social/society AHD/W7
subsequent adj succeeding, following in time/place/order AHD/W7
sue vb to solicit, make petition to/for AHD/W7
suit n suite AHD/W7
suite n retinue AHD/W7
suitor n pleader, one who petitions/entreats AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: gezicht n face TLL
Old Saxon: segg n man ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: seggr n.masc man; hero, warrior LRC
Icelandic: seggr n man ASD
Danish: ansigt n face TLL
Swedish: ansikte n face TLL
Latin: assigno, assignāre vb to allow, assign W7
associatus vb.ptc joined by companionship W7
associo, associāre vb to unite W7
consequens adj/vb.ptc following, consequent W7
consequor, consequi vb.dep to follow along W7
consigno, consignare vb to seal, authenticate W7
consociatus vb.ptc associated with W7
consocio, consociare vb to associate with W7
designatus vb.ptc designated W7
designo, designāre vb to designate W7
dissociatus vb.ptc divided, separated W7
dissocio, dissociare vb to divide, separate W7
extrinsecus adj from without W7
insigne n.neut mark, badge W7
insignia insignia, flags W7
insignis adj marked, distinguished W7
intrinsecus adv internal, inwardly W7
obsequiosus adj compliant W7
obsequium n.neut compliance W7
obsequor, obsequi vb.dep to comply W7
persquor, persequi vb.dep to pursue W7
prosecutus vb.ptc pursued W7
prosequor, prosequi vb.dep to pursue W7
resigno, resignare vb to unseal, cancel W7
secta n.fem way of life, class of persons W7
secundum prep following LRC
secundus, secunda, secundum adj second, following, favorable LRC
secutor n.masc follower W7
secutus vb.ptc followed W7
sequax, sequāc adj following, attending W7
sequens, sequentis vb.pres.ptc following W7
sequester n.masc agent, depositary, bailee W7
sequestrum n.neut legal sequestration W7
sequor, sequi vb.dep to follow W7
sigillum n.neut seal W7
signo, signare vb to sign, mark, seal W7
signum n.neut sign, mark, seal, token, image W7
sociābilis adj sociable W7
sociālis adj social, conjugal, re: allies/partners W7
societās, societātis n.fem alliance, companionship W7
socio, sociare vb to join, unite, associate W7
socius n.masc ally, companion, associate W7
subsequens, subsequentis adj/vb.ptc following W7
subsequor, subsequi vb.dep to follow closely W7
Vulgar Latin: sequitus vb.ptc followed W7
sequor, sequi vb.dep to follow W7
Late Latin: extrinsecus adj extrinsic W7
persecutor n.masc persecutor W7
persecutus vb.ptc persecuted W7
persequor, persequi vb.dep to persecute W7
secta n.fem organized ecclesiastical body W7
secundinae afterbirth W7
sequentia n.fem sequel, act of following W7
sequestro, sequestrāre vb to set apart, surrender for safekeeping W7
Medieval Latin: scarlata adj scarlet (in color) W7
scarlata n.fem scarlet cloth W7
New Latin: scarlatina n.fem scarlet fever W7
sequestrum n.neut legal sequestration W7
Spanish: escarlata adj scarlet TLL
seguida n.fem sequence AHD
seguidilla n.fem.dim seguidilla AHD
seguir vb to segue, follow AHD
según prep according to TLL
Old French: as(s)igner vb to assign CDC
ensuivre vb to ensue W7
escarlate adj red, scarlet W7
poursuir vb to pursue W7
second adj second W7
seel n.masc seal W7
signe n.masc sign W7
siute n.fem suite, sequence, act of following W7
suir vb to follow W7
suivre vb to follow W7
Anglo-French: pursuer vb to pursue W7
suitor n.masc follower W7
Middle French: conséquent adj following, appropriate W7
consigner vb to consign W7
ensuivre vb to ensue W7
executer vb to execute W7
execution n.fem execution W7
intrinsèque adj internal, intrinsic W7
persécuter vb to persecute W7
persécuteur n.masc persecutor W7
résigner vb to resign (oneself) W7
secte n.fem sect, group W7
séquestrer vb to keep against one's will W7
signer vb to mark, seal, sign W7
societé n.fem society W7
French: assigner vb to assign, designate W7
écarlate adj/n.fem scarlet TLL
extrinsèque adj extrinsic W7
selon prep according to TLL
socio- pfx socio- W7
suite n.fem suite, series W7
Italian: secondo adj second W7
secondo prep according to TLL
segno n.masc sign W7
seguire vb to follow W7
Albanian: social adj social LRC
Greek: hepesthai vb to follow W7
ἕπομαι vb to follow LRC
Persian: saqalāt n (type of) rich cloth W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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