Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sek-   'to see, notice; show, say, speak'

Semantic Field(s): to See, to Show, to Say, to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gesēon, geseah, gesǣgon, gesegen vb.str.V to see, observe LRC
gesiht, gesi(e)hþ, gesyhþ n.fem sight, vision, power of seeing ASD/W7
saga, sagu n.masc/fem saw/saga, speech ASD
secg(e)an, sægde, sægd vb.wk.III to say, tell (a tale), recite (a poem) ASD
secgg(e)an, sæcgan vb.wk.III to say, tell (a tale), recite (a poem) ASD
sēon, seah, sǣgon, segen vb.str.V to see, look LRC
Middle English: gainsayen vb to gainsay W7
sawe n saw W7
sayen vb to say W7
scald n scold W7
scold n scold W7
seen vb to see W7
sight n sight W7
English: gainsay, gainsaid vb.wk.trans to deny, dispute AHD/W7
saga n tale, story, narrative AHD
saw n maxim, saying, proverb AHD/W7
say, said vb.wk to state, express in words AHD/W7
scold n one addicted to ribald abusive speech AHD/W7
see, saw, seen vb.str to perceive by eye/sight AHD/W7
sight n spectacle, something seen AHD/W7
sight vb.trans to get/catch view of W7
skald n bard, ancient Scandinavian poet/historiographer AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sega, sedsa vb to say, tell ASD
sia vb to see ASD
Dutch: zeggen vb to say, tell LRC
zien vb to see LRC
Old Saxon: seggian vb to say, tell ASD
sehan vb to see ASD
Old High German: gisiht n sight W7
saga, sega n.fem saw/saga, speech ASD
sagēn vb to say, tell W7
sehan vb to see W7
German: Gesicht n.neut sight; face, visage LRC
Sage n.fem saga, history LRC
sagen vb to say LRC
sehen vb to see LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: saga n.fem saw/saga, history LRC
segja, sagða vb to say, speak; tell, relate LRC
sjá vb to see, perceive; look, find; understand LRC
skāld n skald W7
Icelandic: saga n saga ASD
seg(g)ja vb to say, tell ASD
sjá vb to see ASD
skālda vb to make scurrilous verse W7
sög n.fem saw ASD
Danish: se vb to see LRC
sige vb to say, tell LRC
sigte vb to sight LRC
Swedish: se vb to see LRC
sikta vb to sight LRC
säga vb to say, tell LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: saíƕan vb.str.V to see LRC
Latin: inquam vb.defc to say LRC
Greek: ennepein vb to speak, tell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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