Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. sel-   'to grab, seize, take'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of, to Take


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sellaim vb to take RPN
Old English: sǣl n.neut time, season, occasion; happiness ASD
sǣlig adj silly, blessed, fortunate W7
sala n.masc sale ASD
salu n sale RPN
sellan, sillan, sylian vb.wk to sell, give, lend, supply ASD/RPN
sel(l)en, sylen n.fem gift, grant ASD/RPN
Middle English: consul n consul W7
hansell n handsel W7
hilarite n hilarity, good spirits AHD
sale n sale W7
sellen vb to sell W7
sely, silly adj silly; happy, innocent W7
solas n solace W7
English: console vb.trans to alleviate grief AHD/W7
consul n chief magistrate of republic W7
consulate n office/jurisdiction of consul W7
consult vb to confer with, solicit advice from W7
consultant n expert, one who consults/gives advice W7
counsel n advice TLL
counsel vb to advise TLL
counsellor n one who counsels LRC
exhilarate vb.trans to enliven, make cheerful AHD/W7
handsel n gift as token of good luck/wishes AHD/W7
hilarious adj re: hilarity AHD
hilarity n mirth, great merriment AHD
sale n act of selling AHD/W7
sell, sold vb to betray, deliver/give up (violating trust/duty/loyalty) AHD/W7
silly adj weak, helpless, defenseless, pitiable AHD/OED
solace n alleviation of grief/anxiety AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sella vb to sell, give, pay ASD
Dutch: consulaat n consulate TLL
Old Saxon: sālig adj silly, blessed, fortunate ASD
sellian vb to sell, give ASD
Old Low German: sālig, sēlig adj silly, blessed, fortunate ASD
Old High German: sala n.fem sale, surrender, giving up/over ASD
sālig adj silly, happy W7
sellan traders ASD
sellen vb to sell, deliver, hand over RPN
German: Konsulat n consulate TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sala n.fem sale ASD
Old Icelandic: selja vb to sell, give up RPN
Icelandic: sæla n joy, bliss, happiness ASD
Danish: konsulat n consulate TLL
Swedish: konsulat n consulate TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: salja vb to offer sacrifice RPN
saljan vb to sell, offer ASD
sēlei n goodness ASD
Latin: consilium, consilii n.neut counsel LRC
consul, consulis n.masc consul LRC
cōnsulō, cōnsulere vb to reflect, take counsel LRC
exhilaratus vb.ptc made cheerful W7
exhilaro, exhilarare vb to make cheerful W7
hilaro, hilarare vb to gladden W7
hilarus adj glad, cheerful W7
solacium n.neut act of consoling W7
solor, solāri vb.dep to console W7
Portuguese: conselho n counsel TLL
Spanish: consejo n counsel TLL
Old French: solas n.fem solace W7
French: conseil n counsel TLL
consoler vb to console, comfort W7
Italian: consiglio n counsel TLL
Greek: ἐλεῖν vb to take, seize RPN
ἑλώριον n.neut spoils, booty LRC
ἱλᾰρός adj merry, joyous, cheerful, hilarious W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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