Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. sel-   'to jump, leap, spring, exult'

Semantic Field(s): to Jump, Leap, Joy


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: as(s)ailen vb.trans to assail W7/CDC
assaut, asaut(e) n assault W7/CDC
resulten vb to result W7
samon n salmon W7
English: assail vb.trans to attack violently with words/blows AHD/W7
assault n violent verbal/physical attack AHD/W7
desultory adj lacking definite plan/purpose/regularity AHD/W7
dissilient adj bursting open, flying asunder AHD/CDC
exult vb.intrans to leap for joy AHD/W7
halter n club-shaped organ in dipterous insect AHD/W7
insult vb to vaunt, behave with pride/arrogance AHD/W7
resile vb.intrans to retract, recoil AHD/W7
result vb.intrans to end, terminate, arise/proceed as effect/consequence/conclusion AHD/W7
salacious adj lascivious, arousing sexual desire/imagination AHD/W7
salient adj jumping, moving by leaps/springs AHD/W7
sally n action of rushing/bursting forth AHD/W7
sally vb to leap out, burst forth W7
salmon n large soft-finned anadromous fish AHD/W7
saute n sauteed dish AHD/W7
somersault n leap/jump turning heels over head AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: zalm n salmon TLL
Latin: adsilio, adsilire vb.trans to assail, leap upon CDC
assilio, assilīre vb to assail, leap upon W7
dēsilio, dēsilīre, dēsilui, dēsultum vb to dismount, leap down W7
desultorius adj desultory W7
exsulto, exsultāre vb to exult, leap up W7
halter n.masc jumping weight W7
insulto, insultāre vb to insult, spring upon W7
resilio, resilire vb to resile W7
resulto, resultāre vb to result, rebound, resound W7
salax, salacis adj lustful, salacious, fond of leaping W7
saliens, salientis vb.pres.ptc salient, leaping W7
salio, salīre, salui, saltum vb to leap, jump, spring W7
salmo, salmonis n.masc salmon W7
salto, saltare vb to jump, dance W7
Vulgar Latin: assalio, assalīre vb to assault, leap upon W7
assaltus vb.ptc assaulted W7
Late Latin: resilio, resilīre vb to resile, withdraw W7
Middle Latin: adsalire, assalire vb.trans to assail CDC
assaltus n assault, attack CDC
Portuguese: assalto n assault CDC
Spanish: asalto n assault CDC
Old French: asaillir, asalir vb.trans to assail W7/CDC
assaut, as(s)alt n.masc assault W7/CDC
saillie n.fem sally W7
saillir vb to sally, rush forward W7
Middle French: insulter vb to insult W7
samon n.masc salmon W7
sombresaut n.masc leap, somersault W7
French: assaut n assault CDC
exulter vb to exult W7
saut n.masc leap W7
sauter vb to jump W7
Old Occitan: asalir, assalhir vb.trans to assail CDC
assaut n assault CDC
Italian: assalire vb.trans to assail CDC
assalto n assault CDC
Homeric Greek: ἅλλομαι vb to leap, spring LRC
Greek: haltēr n.masc jumping weight W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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